1
vote
1answer
40 views

Degenerate primer design for DIG in situ hybridization

New to molecular and have learned to design primers from google/youtube so any info would help Would someone be willing to share their protocol for degenerate primer design? Breakdown: Trying to ...
3
votes
1answer
310 views

Why basement membrane thickens in diabetes mellitus?

Untreated diabetes mellitus may lead to blindness and kidney failure because the basement membrane of small blood vessels in these organs thickens due to increased production of collagen and laminin. ...
1
vote
2answers
267 views

Can human survive falling from 30,000 ft without a chute?

If someone falls 30,000 feet without a parachute; what are the chances of survival if they landed in the water?
0
votes
2answers
278 views

How does cold water help to overcome high fever?

Why cold water helps to overcome from high fever in body? As fever is inside the body and we're applying cold water over the body!
2
votes
1answer
52 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Why do oranges in the US have a small separate part?

Why do oranges in the US have a small separate detachable part at the tip which is separate from the other pods? It looks like a tiny orange itself and has a long fiber attached to it.
2
votes
3answers
748 views

Why is it that drinking caffeinated tea does not help one to stay awake?

I have never felt after drinking tea that I can have the power of being able to work late at night. Neither have I felt that it helps me to be awake while working or keeping eyes opened while I am not ...
4
votes
2answers
4k views

Why does rabies cause hydrophobia?

What feature of rabies pathophysiology causes hydrophobia? Why is hydrophobia unique to this one particular type of viral infection?
3
votes
1answer
55 views

What is the film that covers the tongue?

What is the film that covers the tongue in the mornings, even after brushing the teeth and tongue the night before and why does it have color variations? Do the different colors mean anything?
3
votes
1answer
735 views

What is the minimum air pressure the human body can tolerate if oxygen supply is not an issue?

Disregarding hypoxia, what is the minimum air pressure that the human body can tolerate? (i.e. at what air pressure would the blood start to boil, or skin start to burst, or whatever else might ...
7
votes
1answer
578 views

Crusty eyes in the morning

Often, after waking up from a night's sleep hard, flaky, pale yellow crystals are deposited around the eyelids (which easily wash off with water). What are these? Why are they yellow? What are they ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Does Sympaticus and lymphatic circulation cause feeling of thirsty after short shower?

I have been reading blogs, Guyton and Pocock about what triggers the feeling of thirsty. I am not convinced that is the fact of warm water time is short so not much water lost Assume that the ...
4
votes
0answers
74 views

Do invertebrates dream? [closed]

From Wikipedia: Studies have observed dreaming in mammals such as monkeys, dogs, cats, rats, elephants and shrews. There have also been signs of dreaming in birds and reptiles. Have there ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

tetrads in meiosis are held together by what

This is from SAT subject biology test practice question. The answer it gave me was both chiasmata and centromeres. I can understand they are held by chiasmata but why also centromeres? I looked it up, ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

What are the internal surfaces of body cavities actually made of?

In Ross's book of histology it says that the mesothelium that includes all body cavities is made of simple squamous epithelium but in other places it says that in the gastrointestinal tract it is made ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

phylogenetic Independent contrasts with unresolved tree

I have a dataset containing morphological and performance measures of species from various groups, including insects, lizards, frogs, spiders etc, and want to analyse the relationship between these ...
0
votes
2answers
66 views

is there a way to do batch download for all gene pathways?

I would like to download all the gene pathways and genes of each pathway. Preferably, gene length of each gene as well. It would be a lot more convenient if there is an R package.
8
votes
1answer
884 views

Is there a protein in the eye that gets kinked by photons and shipped down to the liver to get un-kinked?

My friend made the claim that there exists a protein in your eye responsible for vision. This protein is sensitive to different wavelengths of light, and when it gets hit by the right wavelength, it ...
1
vote
1answer
303 views

What is reductive deamination?

This presentation on anaerobic digestion mentions (pg. 19) two major pathways for the digestion of amino acids: Stickland reaction and reductive deamination. While I find some info on the former, what ...
4
votes
2answers
347 views

What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells, but ...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

Width of vein in finger

I am working on my bachelors thesis, where one part of it is to find width of vein in fingertip. I use database images and extract vein patterns from it, but i have to calculate the width of vein and ...
2
votes
3answers
174 views

Why doesn't the cytosol dissolve the polar structures?

we know that cytoplasm of cells are filled with water molecules and other hydrophilic molecules so my question is why the water of cytosol doesn't dissolve the ionic part of the lipid bilayer or why ...
2
votes
1answer
225 views

Role of isopropanol in plasmid isolation

In plasmid isolation, isopropanol is used to renature only the plasmid macromolecules after we precipitate all macromolecules(DNA, RNA, plasmids) using sodium acetate solution. How does it do that? ...
6
votes
2answers
295 views

introduction to Chip Seq

I hope this question is suitable for this site. I am concerned about the Chip experiment part so I think it should be okay. I am a Applied Math student starting to get into bioinformatics and so I've ...
3
votes
1answer
168 views

Ideal lab glassware cleaner for molecular biologist

I'm using Alconox powder detergent to clean my laboratory glassware, the powder is a pain to store near the sink and to use. Would like to make a concentrated liquid to use in its stead. I have ...
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Advantage of cup-like shape of blood cells, spores?

Mold spores sometimes have the same shape as platelets in blood. If I were designing a spore it would probably be spherical. Is there any advantage to this cup-like shape? Maybe there is some ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

How much of the jejunum is bypassed during gastric bypass?

There is both long and short limb bypass surgeries. I want to know how much of the jejunum is bypassed with each procedure.
0
votes
1answer
22 views

What is Saccus in Embryology?

The word seems to be of German origin. I have it here Saccus lymphaticus inguinalis, Saccus lymphaticus jugularis, Saccus lymphaticus posterior, Saccus lymphaticus retroperitonaealis. I ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

PCR master mix contents

I am running PCR reactions with different sets of degenerate primers and I want to know what should go into the master mix My usual master mix: DEPC water PCR buffer (-Mg) 25mM MgCl2 10mM ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Why is oxygen used up in eutrophication?

This probably sounds pretty dumb, but wouldn't algae blooms produce a lot of oxygen? Although they would die out and decomposers would use up oxygen, is that more than what the algae produced?
2
votes
2answers
728 views

Gel Electrophoresis - loading dye and more

I'm a student new to molecular biology coming in from an eco-evo background looking for tips from you molecular pros! It seems that I'm running quite a few gels. The loading dye I'm using is Gel ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Is a naive immune system equally able to handle new antigens as an educated one?

This is a variation of the "does the immune system run out of memory" question. Here's a (possibly imperfect) thought experiment: You take two twins. One of them lives in a bubble from birth. One of ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

How is nutrient uptake in humans measured? [closed]

There are many claims made about nutrient absorption, eg "Juicing helps you absorb all the nutrients from the vegetables". I'm curious to know how nutrient uptake is measured. Eg is it a pure ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

What is meant by single molecule sequencing?

When sequencing papers refer to single molecule sequencing, what is their definition of a "molecule". Are they saying base by base? The entire DNA chain in a chromosome can also be though of as a ...
2
votes
2answers
227 views

How were the first primers made

I keep reading about how primers are useful in pcr -- they allow you to select a specific dna region. Similarly, in NGS or Sanger sequencing they give you a starting point. The primers I see are about ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

How does regurgitated food go to the 3rd stomach chamber instead of going to the 1st?

Ruminants are known for their regurgitation of food; the food goes through the 1st and 2nd stomach chambers, then returns to the oral cavity in cuds. The cuds then come back into the stomach, but this ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

When does exposure to an allergen increase / decrease allergy?

In immunotherapy a person is regularly exposed to an allergen to decrease the allergy. Yet apparently "repeated intranasal challenges ... induces robust allergic airway inflammation, " [0] So when ...
0
votes
4answers
542 views

Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being [closed]

Just like the title says: Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being. No religious or philosophy-based answers will be accepted, we are talking ...
0
votes
1answer
100 views

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones?

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones? Is it hypothalamus?
4
votes
1answer
602 views

Identical twins' biological sexes

Can identical twins have different genders (as in biological sex)? I thought they should have absolutely the same genes. If they can, what caused it? I'd assume it MAY be because of errors in ...
2
votes
1answer
194 views

What kind of small insect is this?

Found in central florida in the bath tub. Its about the size of a pencil marking, very small. What is it?
2
votes
2answers
96 views

Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
6
votes
2answers
208 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...
6
votes
0answers
46 views

Effect of Aging on SA node's sympathetic fibers

I am trying to understand the effect of aging on the sympathetic fibers of SA node. I know that aging shifts the vagal curve to left in frequency due to aging. However, I am interested if aging has ...
4
votes
3answers
338 views

What does “kcal/mol” mean when speaking of enzyme catalysis?

After thinking about it, I'm confused by what the reaction barrier of an enzyme actually means. Imagine a reactor containing enzyme and substrate. If the enzyme in the reactor has a reaction barrier ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Detecting a Fasting State in the Body via Lasers

I was just wondering wether it would be possible to detect if the body is in a "fasting" state, via lasers attached to the body. If it is possible, what sort of laser would be needed?
1
vote
2answers
54 views

How do exon tandem exon duplications occur in the genome?

By this I mean in cases where tandem exons are introduced by replication slippage how would a DNA polymerase by chance duplicate an entire exon cleanly (i.e. from exact start to exact end) when it ...
1
vote
1answer
145 views

Heterozygosity and overdominance

Consider $m$ loci with heterozygote advantage (overdominance) such that the fitness of the two homozygotes is $1-\frac{s}{2}$ and the fitness of the heterozygotes is $1+\frac{s}{2}$, where $s>0$. ...
5
votes
2answers
300 views

Why haven't land animals evolved beyond urination?

It occurred to me (while urinating) that this would seem to be selected against because water is a scarce resource. Why are we constantly losing water we don't need to through urination? What is ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

How are new chromosomes replicated into the next generation via sexual reproduction?

If an individual has a new chromosome, which is very unlikely to happen, he will not have any luck in finding a sexual partner with this same trait. How will the offspring inherit this trait. And ...

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