0
votes
1answer
21 views

Will tagging a protease with HlyA for secretion inactivate the protease?

We are looking to secrete the protease proline iminopeptidase by attaching the secretion signal HlyA to the protease in a gene circuit. Since the natural HlyA secretion sequence in Escherichia coli ...
2
votes
2answers
224 views

Value of mathematical models in biology [closed]

Sorry if this is too much of a soft question or if it is too broad for this site. As a person who has much more experience with math than biology, I've always been really interested in the ...
5
votes
1answer
65 views

Are there eukaryotes with fully working mitochondria but without mitochondrial genes?

Are there eukaryotic organisms with fully working mitochondria that do not have genes in the mitochondria? By fully working, I mean ones which can carry out oxidative phosphorylation, unlike reduced ...
3
votes
1answer
507 views

What is the distinction between the terms detrivores, decomposers, saprotrophs and saprozoic organisms?

All of them feed on dead and decaying matter (detritus). Detrivores and decomposers are distinct, as it says on Wikipedia, in the fact detrivores consume macroscopic clumps of detritus while ...
1
vote
1answer
538 views

Why is Electrical Cardioversion contraindicated in AF and Digitalis Poisoning?

I am thinking why electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in atrial fibrillation with digitalis toxicity/poisoning. Cardiac digitalis is also called digoxin and cardiac glycoside. It is ...
6
votes
2answers
56 views

Why do epithelial cells arrest in response to serum?

Primary epithelial cells, for example human mammary epithelium, fail to proliferate (arrest) in serum-containing medium. Therefore, a common growth medium for epithelium contains pituitary extract ...
8
votes
3answers
998 views

Why is triclosan not considered an antibiotic?

Triclosan is a chemical often referred to as a "biocide" instead of an "antibiotic". However, its mode of action seems to suggest that it is an antibiotic. Triclosan binds to bacterial enoyl-acyl ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Would it be possible to regulate proper phosphorylation so the UPR wouldn't initiate a reactionary cell death in important cells?

In studying the correlation of folded versus unfolded proteins and their impact on neuro-degeneration, it looks like improper phosphorylation in the chaperones (at least, in part) causes the mis-...
9
votes
1answer
945 views

How to prove that pork meat has parasites

I suspect that the pork sold at a certain shop is infected with the parasite pork tapeworm (Taenia solium). Is there a way I can prove this without special equipment? Would it work to leave the raw ...
2
votes
4answers
439 views

Do I need to serially dilute E. coli cultures for optical density measures?

I am expected to track cell growth by measuring the incubating culture's cell concentration every 30 minutes or so. So my questions are: Why do I need to do serial dilution (assuming that I do)? Why ...
4
votes
0answers
23 views

Non-cumbersome respiration sensor for sleep study?

I'm working on a project where I collect ECG signal from multiple volunteers, derive ECG derived respiration(EDR) from the timestamped ECG signal and calculate the cross correlation between EDR and ...
5
votes
1answer
212 views

How do nuclear membranes form during Telophase of Mitosis/Meiosis?

During Telophase, homologous chromosome pairs reach the poles of the cell with the help of microtubules. From there, nuclear membranes form around each new set of chromosomes. My confusion originates ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

CRISPR-Cas Systems

In the context of the bacterial systems (not the gene editing tool), I was wondering what happens to the foreign DNA after the Cas proteins have created a new spacer. It is really not clear to me, ...
4
votes
1answer
51 views

Proline Iminopeptidase v Proline Aminopeptidase

We're an undergraduate independent research team and we are having trouble purchasing commercial proline iminopeptidase as it is unavailable on Sigma Aldrich and very expensive on other websites. We ...
4
votes
0answers
75 views

What is effectiveness of methyl-alcohol as sporicide?

Methyl-alcohol is the weakest alcohol in terms of bactericidal properties. However, I have read that it also works as sporicide. What is the effectiveness of methyl-alcohol in killing the spores of ...
6
votes
1answer
104 views

How can octopus walk if muscles can only contract?

From this video it is evident, that octopus can make tentacles push: https://youtu.be/zaE-LwDowcU How is it possible, if it is said, that muscles can only contract? What types of muscles can ...
2
votes
1answer
172 views

Vegetable Cellulose

I'm a pharmacy student working on my thesis. I just want to ask the probable sources of vegetable cellulose found in vegetable capsule? Note: I'm referring to the capsule itself not for its possible ...
4
votes
1answer
36 views

How do Mockingbirds find each other during mating season?

Since mockingbirds imitate songs of other birds, how do they find each other during mating season? How can they tell it's a mockingbird singing, instead of other birds? Is there something in their ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

Can these “Promega Wizard genomic DNA Purification kit” be used for samples not stated directly?

I am not sure if this is a duplicate of my previous question, it is somewhat related, so sorry if I misunderstood. The question is, can i use the above kit for samples like hair, fingernails, etc? ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

Why is the gene regulation in eukaryotic cells needs multiple level of control than in prokaryotic cells?

That "eukaryotic cells are more complex" and "compartmentalized" are used to justify the need of more level of control of gene expression. I get the basic idea but can't convince myself why complexity ...
3
votes
1answer
190 views

Why increasing the vector concentration does not increase the effeciency of bacterial transformation?

I was reading some old description of the protocols used for the transformation of bacterial cells. In the description I read that the transformation works best with low amount of DNA, and if we ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

ATP required for cell processes [closed]

I haven't been able to find anything that tells me how much ATP is needed for DNA replication, transcription, and translation in humans, just papers that mention ATP used in those processes. I need ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Can suppression of the immune system help cure chronic diseases?

I am not a biologist, but recently while reading an article on Scholarpedia about self-organization I encountered a fascinating biological observation concerning immune response to infections. To ...
1
vote
1answer
360 views

Do rare earth metals actually repel sharks? [closed]

Stroud claims that sharks are effectively repelled by the use of rare earth metals in the water. There has even been a patent issued by the same author for rare earth-wrapped fish hooks to reduce the ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

The Human Menstrual Cycle [duplicate]

1) What happens in the ovary and in the bloodstream that brings about this change in the uterus? 2) Why does the level of FSH decrease and remain at a relatively low level during the luteal phase of ...
2
votes
2answers
61 views

Why does flu vaccination only work against specific strains?

I was wondering why the flu vaccination doesn't protect us from all different types of flu. I know there are 3 major groups A, B and C and they mutate really fast. For example Influenza A virus has 2 ...
4
votes
1answer
74 views

What species does this moth belong to?

It was found a few days ago in the state of Virginia, on the east coast of the United States.
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Book-recommendation: plant biophysics [closed]

I'm a physicist by training am looking to learn more about the biophysics of plants. Can you give me your recommendation of good resources on plant biophysics? Books are preferred.
1
vote
0answers
64 views

aluminum sulfate vs (NH4)2SO4 in Colloidal Coomassie Staining Sol

I have been interested in Colloidal Coomassie Staining to detect proteins in PAGE gel. I found 2 different recipes: one of them uses aluminium sulfate, the other, (NH4)2SO4. I am wondering about ...
3
votes
1answer
238 views

Are corn kernels considered a grain

I have seen corn described as a seed, a grain and a fruit. What are the kernels or a corncob considered to be? A grain, a seed or a fruit?
4
votes
2answers
239 views

What's the name of this caterpillar?

It was found in the state of Virginia, on the east coast of the United States.
3
votes
1answer
124 views

What's the name of this beetle?

I found him in a kitchen located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
29
votes
2answers
7k views

What do ants do with our finger nails?

There is place in my house where I cut my nails. Here, there is an ant hole where an ant colony is seen. Whenever I cut my nails from here, they take my nails inside their hole. I was wondering what ...
1
vote
4answers
415 views

Why don't most animals have “heads” in the middle of their bodies? [closed]

For example, humans. It would seem like, to me, if our brains and eyes, ears, etc. were situated in our stomach area they would be more protected from harm and more central than up at the top in and ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

RBCs have no mitochondria but still metabolize glucose?

I have read that red blood cells (RBCs) metabolize glucose. However they don't have any mitochondria because there is just so much hemoglobin that there is no room for mitochondria without expanding ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

Why do athletes see a dip in performance in their thirties?

I have noticed a lot of athletes hit their prime when they are in their 20s and that by the time they reach their 30s they are past it and start to decline. Great athletes tend to prolong their ...
2
votes
2answers
82 views

A request for an overview of the cranial nerves

Is there any resource that contains motor and sensory innervations, or pathways of all the twelve cranial nerves (i.e., cranial nerve I to XII)? I have found this book chapter on the cranial nerves, ...
1
vote
1answer
157 views

DNA extraction methods for hair?

TLDR: Can anyone state a extraction and isolation method(s) for genomic DNA for hair that will be used for PCR, in detail is preferable since I am a novice. I tried googling for DNA extraction ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

What makes heavy metals toxic?

I'm not sure all heavy metals are toxic, but most are. Some may be present as insoluble compounds, or otherwhise hard to get into an organism, but that's a side aspect. For example, I would count ...
3
votes
2answers
493 views

How does ecology differ from biology?

What precisely is ecology? How does it differ from biology? Because I never studied biology after high school, please explain as if I were 10 years old. I only know that ecology is a subset of biology ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

How are smell and taste in fish differentiated?

The senses of taste and smell in different fish classes are described as two distinct senses; smell is mediated by the nasal openings, and taste by epithelial taste buds. They are both forms of ...
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Why do these earthworms stay between the road lines?

This article shows pictures of earthworms during floods in Texas. The worms ball up, supposedly in order to survive the floods. Can anyone explain the phenomenon a little? I can't seem to find ...
0
votes
2answers
431 views

What is Meriva Phytosome Curcumin?

What is Meriva Phytosome Curcumin other than being a food supplement? Is it a plant? A type of plant extract? I googled it but still couldn't figure out exactly what it is. The reason I'm asking is ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Are amantadine and rimantadine MOAs unknown to evolution?

Are any natural (human or otherwise) antiviral mechanisms similar to the antiviral mechanisms of amantadine and rimantadine, or are these mechanisms undiscovered by evolution? Are drug researchers ...
1
vote
3answers
105 views

Why is it $q^2$ for the individual count in hardy weinberg?

My understanding: In Hardy-Weinberg problems the frequency of a homozygous recessive genetic occurrence in a population is $q^2$. So if 1 in 100 people in a population have albinism (homozygous ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Queller's 1985 version of Hamilton's rule

Queller 1985 ("Kinship, reciprocity and synergism in the evolution of social behavior") provides a generalization of Hamilton's rule that allows for non-additivity. To accomplish that, Queller writes ...
6
votes
0answers
75 views

Identity by descent among unrelated individuals

I was reading a couple of papers which talk about IBD (Identity by descent) among unrelated individuals (for eg. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/4/1193.long). However they do not seem to clearly ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

How many smaller muscles compose the interosseus muscle in the human hand?

When looking at Wikipedia, I read that the interosseus muscle is actually composed of 3 muscles, but on the French Wikipedia, they talk about a 4th muscle. So how many interosseus muscle components ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Affymetrix SNP data, how to filter out rows based on rsid [closed]

This is my first time on stackexchange. I am new to bioinformatics, and I have some new SNP data from an Affymetrix Axiom array. I have the genotypes exported into a giant tab-delimited table txt ...
0
votes
1answer
387 views

How copy number variation thresholds are defined in GISTIC

I am having trouble trying to understand how GISTIC discretize copy number variation to values -2, -1, 0, 1, 2. I am using TCGA copy number variation for ColoRectal Adenocarcinoma. In cBioPortal FAQ ...

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