2
votes
1answer
66 views

Saliva test for Toxoplasma gondii?

I am trying to find some reliable gene kit by which you can rapidly test Toxoplasma gondii. I am not sure if it exists. I have an intuition that some tests done during 90s-00s on this species had high ...
2
votes
2answers
101 views

chimeric sequences [closed]

I understand that chimeric sequence identification is done in results of sequencing projects to remove them and improve the quality of the output. I am unsure as to how they show up during sequencing. ...
2
votes
1answer
660 views

How to interpret the breeders equation?

The univariate breeders equation is defined as, $\ R = h^2 s$ where $\ R $ is the response, $\ h^2 $ is the heritability (additive genetic variation), $\ s $ is the selection differential. The ...
2
votes
1answer
537 views

How is the transcription direction of RNA polymerase determined?

When transcription factors attach to the DNA strand - How do they know in which direction they have to initialize the transcription by rna polymerase? Is it always read in the same direction anyway? ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
2
votes
2answers
389 views

Gel Electrophoresis - loading dye and more

I'm a student new to molecular biology coming in from an eco-evo background looking for tips from you molecular pros! It seems that I'm running quite a few gels. The loading dye I'm using is Gel ...
2
votes
2answers
94 views

Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Number of autoregulation and FFL motifs in a network

Suppose we have a network with N* nodes (N* is the number of internal nodes). Every directed link in this network exists with probability p. What would be the number of: motifs that are ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

Can protein precipitate out in alcohol during DNA extraction?

In common lab sessions to extract DNA from strawberry or cheek cells, will there be protein contaminating the DNA extract in alcohol? If so, how can we prevent protein from precipitating out of the ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

How does gene expression work in an adult organism? Is everything encoded everywhere?

The color of a person's eyes are genetically predetermined. If I knew how and in which gene(s) colors are encoded, I could change these genes in the ovary and sperm and thus change the eye color of ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Why do the neuron pathways decussate?

I learn about the brain right now, and there are crossing of neuron pathways everywhere; in the thalamus, the medulla oblongata, the pyramidal tract... And I don't understand why? What is the reason ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Do you have experience with PacBio?

I prepare a experiment and I found $PacBio SMRT$ as the great way to sequence my PCR products. I find the cost: library preparation 655 dollars + sequencing 435 dollars. It seems very low. Do you have ...
2
votes
2answers
108 views

Real time PCR normalization algorithm

When performing normalization of real time PCR results, I found two ways of doing it: In my lab they follow the next layout: $efficiency^{-(CT\ interest\ gene - CT\ housekeeping)}$ each time ...
2
votes
1answer
391 views

What can cause the bloating in high protein diet of Whey proteins?

I am thinking what can cause the swelling of gastrointestinal system i.e. bloating after high protein diet of Whey proteins. Liver does breaks those proteins to branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ...
2
votes
2answers
51 views

Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Meaning of the word Oleracea

What does "oleracea", as appears in numerous plant species (scientific) names, mean? Examples: Euterpa oleracea, Brassica oleracea, Portulaca oleracea, Acmella oleracea, Spilanthes oleracea.
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Why can't ciliary muscles in the human eye relax like other muscles?

I had laser eye surgery a decade ago, but in recent years my eyesight has become significantly myopic. I consulted an ophthalmologist to see if this was eye strain because I work at computers a lot, ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Would expression of GroEL and GroES in erythrocytes be a potentially effective therapy for sickle cell disease?

Would expression of GroEL and GroES in erythrocytes be a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for sickle cell disease? Why or why not?
2
votes
1answer
65 views

How much solar energy required to compensate food?

Just curious, how much solar energy can power an (herbivore) animal? Specifically, is it enough sunlight on Mercury (4 to 10 times brighter than on Earth) to "feed" a zebra? Will it be sufficient at ...
2
votes
3answers
161 views

Many spermatozoa, but just one ovum

Why do men produce so much spermatozoa, that will get discarded, but women, just ovulum, but it's a good one. Couldn't men produce good spermatozoa as a limited edition? Where is the evolutionary ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Do lysogenic viruses only infect bacteria?

In the video sent by my teacher on viruses, the example he used for lysogenic viruses was a bacteriophage infecting a bacteria. When he was describing how the genetic material was incorporated into ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Quorum Sensing in Vibrio cholerae

This is a figure summarising the quorum sensing mechanism in Vibrio cholerae. In this video by Bonnie Bassler, she explains how quorum sensing can be targeted to control infections. At 15:09 she ...
2
votes
1answer
499 views

Why do cells vary in shape and function when they have the same genome and the same organelles?

Why do cells vary in shape and function when they have the same genome and the same organelles. For example: why do all cells have nuclei but red blood cell's don't; why can't the cells of a eye ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Pippin prep kits - expiration date

Do you use Pippin prep? We would like to buy it, but we need more info. What is the expiration date of kits for Pippin prep? Thanks!
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Do bacteria with capsular antigen always have a capsule?

Assume some bacteria have capsular antigen. Do these bacteria always have a capsule? I think not, I think the antigen only makes it possible.
2
votes
2answers
355 views

Promoter in the lac operon

Here is the question: Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

What is the creature with the lowest neuron count that demonstrates cognition beyond reflexes?

I'm under the impression that nematode worms just perform the same scripted actions over and over again in response to specific stimuli. They have 302 neurons. Chimpanzees display problem solving ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Explanation of the terms “downstream signaling” and “upstream signaling”

In molecular biology, what's the meaning of the terms "downstream signaling" and "upstream signaling"? What's the difference between them?
2
votes
2answers
99 views

Is there any evidence of increased life expectancy for animal species?

Life expectancy for human has significantly increased during the last century or so. We all know that there are many reasons that are not linked with "evolution", but I am wondering if such change in ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Isopropanol precipitation of DNA - duration and magnitude of cold storage

DNA prep protocols often include a final precipitation step with alcohol, often isopropanol, where the DNA must be kept in the alcohol, at a low temperature such as -20C or -70C, often overnight. ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Does recombination increase the additive genetic variance for fitness?

On this article, first column, eighth line of the introduction: By bringing together favourable alleles from different chromosomes, sex and recombination increase the additive genetic variance for ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Why there is a very high drop in pressure from arteries to arterioles?

Laplace law explains why the pressure is the same in aorta and arteries (100). I am thinking why there is so big drop in pressure when going from arteries to arterioles (40-60). Why there is a great ...
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Does this equation have a typo? (Systems Biology, singular value decomposition) [closed]

I'm reading a systems biology paper, and I'm suspecting there's a typo in an equation, but I want to make sure. The article is "Systemic metabolic reactions are obtained by singular value ...
2
votes
2answers
165 views

Do humans have a “dominant” neurotransmitter system/sensitivity within their brain?

I've recently heard a podcast, in which Dr. Helen Fisher suggests that there are "4 broad personality types", and each one is associated with a particular neurotransmitter: The corresponding ...
2
votes
3answers
238 views

What do you see if you look at your own retina with the same eye? (optical feedback)

When you record a video while pointing the viewfinder towards the screen showing a live preview you create optical feedback: video example. An anoalogous effect occurs when you turn your microphone ...
2
votes
2answers
58 views

Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...
2
votes
2answers
94 views

Is it possible to create an experiment in house conditions to prove the existence of germs?

I realise that the best way to prove the existence of germs or single-celled organisms is by looking at them through a microscope. But I don't have a microscope at my home, how can I design an ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

What is the name of the smallest self-replicating thing?

Some time last year, I found an article on Wikipedia about the smallest something to be able to reproduce. I don't remember exactly what it was, but I am fairly certain that after the initial ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

How good is information transfer between the hemispheres of the brain?

I sometimes listen to lectures on my phone using ear buds, but occasionally with only one ear bud in. Is the other half of my brain losing out on any aspect of the lecture? Just how good is the corpus ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

maximum # of generations possible in a population of cannibalistic rats

Assume a sufficiently large population of rats (to allow genetic variation and facilitate inbreeding) in a place with abundant water, sunlight, shelter but no food. For how many generations can this ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Evolutionary conservativeness

List the following proteins in the order of decreasing evolutionary conservativeness of their primary structure: Somatotropin. Catalytic subunit of a DNA – polymerase. Histone H1. ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Mites on ginger root

I was just looking at some mouldy ginger found in the fridge under the microscope and was horrified/delighted to find (what looked to be) mites growing in it. I have searched the web and can only find ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

DNA ligase mechanism

I am unable to understand what happens to the phosphates from ATP. What are they used for ?Charging 3' end or 5'end ?
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid deliver nutrients/drugs to neurons during sleep?

I'm looking at this article on the possible mechanism of detoxifying brain during sleep using cerebrospinal fluid. It states that at night, the space between neurons may allow better (up to 20x) ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What is mRNA expression level?

I cannot find clear explanation of what is mRNA expression level, and how to measure it. I would appreciate if someone explained it or gave a reference. Thanks!
2
votes
1answer
75 views

The arrangement of retinal cells?

The section of retina shows a layered arrangement of the various retinal cells. Starting from the inside (where the light strikes first) is the nerve fibre layer, ganglionic layer, amacrine cell ...
2
votes
2answers
113 views

Are there free electrons in muscles, hair, or skin?

Electric shock occurs upon contact of a (human) body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair. In metals many electrons are said to be ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Identification - What kind of animal leaves these tracks?

I live in the suburbs of Washington DC where it recently snowed. I was admiring all of the tracks left behind by wildlife of all kinds when I came across these prints, that I was unable to recognize ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Difference vector target and genomic target

In Pfu turbo DNA Polymerase AD information sheet (and possibly in many other) different amplification targets are divided in Genomic DNA targets, Vector DNA targets and cDNAs. What is the difference ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Why aren't we allowed to refreeze previously thawed breastmilk in refrigerator?

https://www.breastfeeding.asn.au/bf-info/breastfeeding-and-work/expressing-and-storing-breastmilk Previously frozen— thawed in refrigerator but not warmed 4 hours or less (ie the next ...

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