1
vote
1answer
62 views

Do Acyl Carrier Proteins and Conenzyme A have similar reactivity?

In terms of the reactions they undergo are they roughly equivalent groups?
1
vote
1answer
1k views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
0
votes
2answers
128 views

Blood circulation and blood pressure in different tissues [closed]

The volume of blood coursing the blood circulation is approximately five litres. A typical vein will stretch about eight times as much as corresponding artery. Because veins have high capacitance, ...
4
votes
3answers
203 views

How is antibody production stopped?

Once clonal selection is done, B cells would start dividing and producing antibodies. So, after an antigen is eliminated, what stops the division of B cells and antibody production?
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Randomized experimental design in genetic experimentation. [closed]

I am struggling to find out if randomization is used in traditional genetic breeding experimentation with model organisms, especially in lab contexts? And why this should be so? This is part of a ...
4
votes
1answer
82 views

Are there any bacteria, in our environment, able to break down nitrate under aerobic conditions?

Given a fix volume of water saturated with dissolved oxygen through aeration. Suppose that ammonium, Nitrosomonas, and Nitrobacter are always available in the water. We know that some of the ammonium ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Are CoA and CoAS the same thing in a compound?

Is CoA-S-R the same as CoA-R, and is CH3C(=O)CoA the same as CH3C(=O)SCoA? Eg. Above is the compound on the right just coenzyme A or is it actually another compound and not just notation?
0
votes
3answers
76 views

What are the allowed evolution operators (on protein encoding sequences)?

What are the evolution operators, meaning allowed actions on the DNA sequence that encodes a protein. I assume all evolution of genes is a result of duplication errors. So an answer could look ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Do nerve cells cause action potential in cardiac muscle?

I think the answer is no, but I am not 100% sure. If it was yes, then the dendrite of the nerve cell should each time receive a stimulus causing Na+ channels to open, when the contraction happen. ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Can songbirds mimic car alarm sounds?

A silly question. A few days ago I observed a very vocal bird with impressive vocal variety. It was rapidly switching from one tune to the next. After sometime I realized that the bird might be ...
2
votes
2answers
194 views

Change in conditions of an ecosystem lead to change in organisms

Let's think about the slash and burn method and its effects on the ecosystem. Cutting down trees that rise all the way up to the canopy would expose the plants at ground level to more light, so would ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Which hormones/factors affect Calcium absorption in the small intestine and its regulation?

I think the question is very broad and cannot find precise mechanisms. I am not sure about the precise mechanisms of the regulation. I think they are at least Vitamin D, diffusion and specific ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Autophagy in eukaryotic cells

What is autophagy? How and under which circumstances is it used by the cell? I believe The reason for autophagy is some kind of recycling, am I right? But why does it occur in infections?
6
votes
1answer
127 views

Same 185th million grandfather?

I was watching a lecture by Richard Dawkins earlier today and he mentioned that “Your 185th million grandfather was a fish.” I started wondering about the following question, Is it true that my 185th ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

How can I learn about how cloning works in nature (twins)?

I would like to learn about how the process of cloning works in nature - how are twins "created" after fertilization what genetic changes can occur in each of the twins. Where should I start? What ...
4
votes
1answer
100 views

Is it possible to condition the body to reduce bruising?

I do combat sports, and in these sports there are a lot of hits that can cause bruising. I've found that, over time, physical conditioning can reduce and/or eliminate the bruising to the point where ...
4
votes
1answer
183 views

Plasma cells and memory cells

What decides whether an activated B cell will get converted to plasma cell or memory B cell? Is it necessary that out of a mitotic division one will convert to memory B cell and the other to plasma ...
5
votes
2answers
255 views

Do we have enough diversity of antibodies to overcome almost any antigen?

I always wonder about the capability of diversity of our antibodies. Do we have enough antibodies to fit to every kind of molecule? Wont't it be easier if our antibodies are like clay and can be ...
2
votes
1answer
557 views

Why do humans bury their dead?

As far as we know Ape Men or the Neanderthal Man was the first to bury its dead. My question is why. I don't think they practiced religion or believed in spirits or faith or stuff like that. ...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

What regulates these two methods of splicing?

Alternative splicing can shuffle the exon order and select from the exon sequence of a single gene site to provide a combinatorial selection of possible transcription products from the one gene. Can ...
2
votes
1answer
405 views

Comparing BLAST and the Smith-Waterman algorithm

I've been asked: how does BLAST improve dynamic programming accuracy? I do know that BLAST is based on heuristic approach that approximates the Smith-Waterman algorithm and that the Smith-Waterman is ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Avian Diseases : How to Disinfect [closed]

How can I sanitize a bird's carcass so that no diseases are present after disinfection? I was thinking $\gamma$-ray bombardment since ozonation would only surface disinfect.
7
votes
1answer
57 views

Intracellular lipid transport

I know that lipids are carried around the body in the blood either as micelles or by lipid-binding proteins which allow them to be solved. Lipids can't always be integrated in a membrane though, the ...
2
votes
2answers
122 views

Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

Movement of stem cells from mother to fetus

Recent results from J Lee Nelson and colleagues (Sci Am. 2008 Feb;298(2):64-71; available as full text through Google) show that cells from the mother were found in a person aged 46. Logically, these ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

How to bind antibodies to study their properties?

I want to experimentally look at the behavior of antibodies. To do so, I need to be able to bind these antibodies to a substrate. Does anybody know of a good substrate to use that antibodies bind to? ...
3
votes
2answers
639 views

Just how light-sensitive is ethidium bromide?

One lab I was in was paranoid about keeping it in a foil-wrapped conical tube; my current lab leaves it out on the bench (and it works fine for staining gels). It's the same company/concentration in ...
3
votes
1answer
119 views

How do different tissue culture matrices affect background in fluorescent microscopy?

In response to my previous question, I've been reading up a little bit on poly-D-lysine, Collagen I, Collagen IV, laminin, and other tissue culture coatings that promote cell adhesion. I've always ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

What parts of the brain are involved in regulating blood pressure in mammals?

I'm reading this Wikipedia article on blood pressure and its regulation, and it mentions that medulla is involved. however, I vaguely remember reading another article on Wikipedia and it mentioned ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Measuring sugar content of a tree

I would like to grow mushrooms on oak trees I can harvest from my property. I've read that the best results will be when the sap is rising but the tree hasn't budded yet. The mycelium feeds on the ...
4
votes
2answers
734 views

How to convince suspension cells to adhere more tightly?

I'm developing a cell-based assay in 96-well plates that requires adherent cells, as they need to be washed at least twice during the protocol. I'm using in-house strains of HT1080 cells (some ...
7
votes
1answer
70 views

Excretion of monovalent and divalent ions in sharks

I have heard that sharks excrete $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ by their gill surfaces but divalent ions like magnesium are excreted through feces. What could be the reason behind this?
1
vote
1answer
291 views

How do changes in temperature affect body weight in humans?

What would be effect on weight of individuals if we bring a fully adapted (to cold climate ) human individual and a fully adapted to very hot climate individual to a moderate climate region?
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Why is epinephrine not part of the somatic nervous system?

I learned that the adrenal medulla releases epinephrine, which is a vasodilator of the vessels that lead to the skeletal muscle. I also learned that somatic nervous system only uses Achetycholine as ...
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Evolution after the development of sexual reproduction

My understanding of evolution is that genetic mutation occurs in individual members of a species, and they become a new species. Isn't a definition of species a group of genetically similar organisms ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

Superposing DNA

I have a series of protein models with DNA docked. I now want to superpose the DNA on a reference DNA molecule and extract the translational distance applied and the rotation angle used. I can ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Does precipitation influence the UV spec reading?

I have been checking my sample for Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. I have dissolved Hydrogen peroxide in Phosphate buffer. My sample is clear and reagent is also clear but when I have mixed my ...
6
votes
2answers
141 views

Can any species be bred selectively/engineered to become as diverse looking as dogs?

I've done some research and it appears that dogs are the most diverse looking single species of mammals. The questions that interest me is - are dogs special in respect to genes/gene activation ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

What determined the evolution of different faces in humans?

The most distinctive characteristic of a human is it's face - it is unique among each individual (with the exception of identical twins). It is uncertain to me if whether we best identify other humans ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

Food Intake versus ability to flee among birds, particularly the hummingbird?

Logically speaking, if a hummingbird drinks too much nectar, it will be temporarily overweight and less able or unable to fly to escape danger. However if the same hummingbird doesn't drink enough ...
2
votes
1answer
250 views

What is this insect?

These photographs were taken today in Marseille, in the Mediterranean coast of France. My French friends inform me that these beasties are called cousins because they are "cousins" of mosquitoes ...
7
votes
1answer
89 views

How do animals perform detailed active camouflage?

We often see videos of octopuses and chameleons changing their color to suit their surroundings. If it was a simple color change from white to red, it'd be understandable, but some of these animals ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Can you cure allergies?

A common solution is allergy shots, which helps you adapt to the allergy. But are there ways to tell the body that this allergy is safe and there is no need to amount a response to it? So that there ...
-2
votes
1answer
392 views

Are we evolving to age slower, or to live longer aging at the same rate?

I wonder why most of us find senior people lovely and charming. Is it because to love grandpa and granny is vital to our survival as a species, in the same way as we love babies? If so, it would mean ...
3
votes
1answer
100 views

Would non-human carnivores be able to survive on farmed foods?

Certain creatures that are considered carnivores are non-obligate carnivores and are technically omnivores (such as wolves/dogs). How different is the potential digestive ability of these species ...
2
votes
1answer
554 views

Optogenetics - How do microbial opsins work?

I'm just introduced to the optogenetics method and am having some trouble grasping the genetics (of the optogenteics) part of things. So we have Retinal and Opsin that form Rhodopsin molecule that ...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Why does oxygen bind to hemoglobin in an specific angle?

There is an specific angle of the bond between oxygen and hemoglobin in lungs, which I don't know, but what interests me more is the question, why is it specific?
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Removing bacterial contaminants from resin

We have a few Strep-tactin columns that had some growth in them and we would like to regenerate the columns back since the resin is quite expensive. Basic goal: remove the brown stuff. So far, I've ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

What is a good review article source for Physiology?

I am looking review articles for Physiology. For instance, Physiological explanation of steps of measurement of the metabolism by Douglas-Haldane. There is no section for Physiology or metabolism in ...
2
votes
1answer
241 views

How do fully dioecious plants determine sex?

I know that a minority of plants are fully dioecious, with adult plants producing either only male or only female flowers. When is this sexual differentiation determined? Is the seed of such a plant ...

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