2
votes
1answer
2k views

Nerves, Neurons, Axons and Dendrites by Example

Here is a simple diagram of a neuron: A few (very closely related) questions: Where are receptors located (for pain, pressure, temperature, etc.): in the axon terminals or the dendrite tree? ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

How can I purify RNA after gel electrophoresis to remove residual acrylamide?

I sometimes use denaturing gel electrophoresis on a preparative scale to purify RNA produced by in vitro transcription. The major issue with this is that the sample after extraction from the gel still ...
2
votes
0answers
1k views

Physiologically, how can stress/anxiety cause neuropathy?

According to the Mayo Clinic, stress/anxiety can cause "pins and needles" (neuropathy) sensations all over the body. But how can this be? My understanding of the sensory pathway is that sensory ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

Is it possible to dock multiple ligands with the target?

Is it possible to dock multiple ligands with a target? If so, what is the suitable software used for? -- Is it possible to fix specific docking region for the target (or) automatic?
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Satisfication with irrelevant things [closed]

I am not sure if this question is better suited CogSci.SE so please tell me. My question is why are we satisfied when we get things that aren't useful in any important way? For example, relating to ...
1
vote
1answer
201 views

Can signals travel “backwards” in the sensory pathway?

My understanding of the "sensory pathway" is that its a linear, directional pipeline as follows: Nerves (fire various signals depending on the type of sensors they are) Fibers (transmit signals from ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

Fab fragments of antibodies to fight viral infections

I was reading about Fab fragment and about using them to fight of viral infections. It seems that the Fab attaches to the viral receptors, which stops the viruses from attacking the cells. It seems ...
24
votes
3answers
2k views

Hot water and bacteria

I know that it is common to say, "use hot water when washing your hands" or when you've got a cut, "wash your hands with warm water," etc. I was wondering, why is this the case? Since bacteria grow in ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Persistency of botulinum toxin in environment

There is information about decontamination times here on pages 6 and 7. My specific question is how persistent botulinum toxin is in a natural environment, or alternatively, what is the half life of ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Cells scatter light in solution. Do they refract?

For part of an exam question, "why do cells grown in liquid cause turbidity?" I answered that cells refract light. The correct answer was that cells scatter light. Isn't the light scattering ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Why do some animals try to imitate other animals?

There is a tendency of some animals (including people!) to be "copy-cats" and try to imitate members of their own, and sometimes other, species. The most obvious example is a parrot copying human ...
-1
votes
1answer
79 views

What is the evolutionary purpose of white spots in nails and how can they be characterised due to Leukonychia? [closed]

Suppose you haven't hit your nails so the white spots are due to Leukonychia. Are the discoloration i.e. the white spots due to lower porosity (less minerals absorbing) or some other factor? I ...
5
votes
1answer
253 views

Western blotting with multiple antibodies

Normally I wash/detect with one primary/secondary-HRP antibody pair, strip, then wash/detect with the other primary/secondary-HRP pair which works well. However, I recently started working with a ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Anatomy of nervous system's sensory pathways

When I touch my hand on a hot stove, I feel pain. I'm interested in knowing all the main "endpoints" (components/parts of the body) that are involved in relaying this pain signal. As I understand it ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

How and where do nerves share pathways to the brain?

I am interested in understanding how pain receptors send signals to the somatosensory cortex (the part of the brain that registers various nerve signals such as pain, presure, temperatures, etc). ...
1
vote
1answer
6k views

Why do the major and minor groove exist in DNA?

So I know that the major/minor groove arise from the offset pairing of the two strands in the helix. All my textbook tells me is that "pitch causes the off-set pairing of DNA and this gives rise to ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

What does 'pedigree information' mean?

This paper uses Pied Flycatcher as a study species. For the population of Pied Flycatchers they studied, 'pedigree information' was available. What exactly does this 'pedigree information' mean?
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Do snakes get dizzy?

I've seen snakes get captured in sacks and I've wondered if the snake would get dizzy if the sack were twirled around. I have not done any tests (and don't plan to) because snakes scare me.
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Would blue light be effective to help average people when sunsets come much earlier in the day?

I know people with SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) benefit from blue light in the winter as night-time comes much earlier (in the UK, sunset is around 4pm in December, compared to 9pm in June). ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Do distinctions between dry, tickly and chesty coughs have any medical basis?

Background At least in Britain you normally come across distinct kinds of cough medicine "chesty", "dry" and "tickly". Questions Are "chesty", "dry" and "tickly" coughs always due to ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Would humans eventually evolve to fight off fatal diseases if we didn't treat/vaccinate for them? [duplicate]

I am definitely pro vaccination, and the question is a bit morbid because people would die, but assuming that we didn't treat or vaccinate people for fatal diseases such as Ebola or the black death, ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

What specific sensory nerves act as receptors for “pins and needles” (neuropathy)?

According to this excellent answer, the difference between "pain" and "pins and needles" (neuropathy) is that different receptors (sensory nerves) trigger in reaction to different stimuli. Different ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

STRING ID - allelic differences and splice variants

STRING has protein (amino acid sequences) mapped to a single gene ID. I have these doubts with respect to STRING ID. I find that 1.All alleles of a single gene share the same STRING ID and ...
5
votes
2answers
127 views

Balanced vs Maximized Codon Optimization

I have worked with the optimization of several viral proteins, from different viruses/families, with different results. When Menzella, 2011 was published I tried that method. I found quite the ...
6
votes
0answers
78 views

Statistical method for characterizing the relationship between body mass and metabolic rate

There is a dataset that contains body mass ($x$) and metabolic rate ($y$) from many different organisms. It is common to fit the data to the model of the form $y=ax^b$ and estimate the parameters $a$ ...
4
votes
1answer
174 views

How could be the “Eurasian magpie” bird won the “Mirror Test” where Gorillas failed

EURASIAN MAGPIE VS GORILLA VS How could be the "Eurasian magpie" bird won the "Mirror Test" where Gorillas failed ? In 1982, mirror tests on two, zoo-reared gorillas failed to demonstrate ...
7
votes
2answers
200 views

Use cases of RNA secondary structure prediction

I'm an undergraduate currently writing a thesis on RNA secondary structure prediction, specifically building upon analysis done by the RNAStructure and Unafold software packages by modifying certain ...
1
vote
2answers
54 views

Why not use non-visual self-recognition to test for consciousness in an organism?

Background A well-known test for consciousness in an organism is to observe its ability to recognise itself in a mirror (see wikipedia article: "Mirror test"). Question Why haven't I come across a ...
5
votes
2answers
159 views

What is Environmental Robustness? Is it different from plasticity?

Hansen (2006) in his review uses the concept of environmental robustness independently of the other concepts of robustness (at pages 139 and 140) without defining ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Native vs Immigrant plants [closed]

Is this statement applicable to any known plant/region combinations? Plant species X, Y, and Z are truly indigenous to region R. Other "immigrant" species can be destroyed by drought or harsh ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Why does anxiety cause diarrhea or constipation?

Anxiety sometimes cause diarrhea, sometimes constipation, and sometimes both. It's interesting because it seems their underlying neurophysiology is somehow different. What are underlying physiological ...
4
votes
1answer
149 views

Circulating factors affecting human health/longevity

Circulating factors present in young mice have been shown to promote rejuvenation of aged mice, suggesting that tissues have inherent capabilities to regenerate, and circulating factors may be ...
2
votes
1answer
262 views

Speciation of humans? [duplicate]

Since we homo sapiens (and all other species) are continuously evolving, are humans undergoing speciation based on our environment? OR has there been any difference across people that could say ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
4
votes
1answer
205 views

Do plants have preference for the form of nitrogen as nutrient?

In the nitrogen cycle (ecology), it is usually described that plants can use nitrogen in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Do plants prefer one form of nitrogen over the other?
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Relation between trigeminal and facial nerve in sympathetic response

In my neuro-anatomy course notes I found that the facial nerve "uses" the trigeminal nerve to reach its targets. However, I have yet to find any diagram or reference that indicates how this is done. ...
8
votes
1answer
117 views

How to validate the regulatory interactions inferred from gene expression data?

My algorithm learns regulatory interaction between genes using Bayesian Network approach from gene expression data. After the algorithm has converged to a network of interacting genes, how to validate ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Can plants directly use sulfuric acid?

In the explanation of the sulfur cycle, it is often said that sulfur moves from the atmosphere to the ground by acid rain in the form of sulfuric acid. Can plants directly use sulfuric acid to ...
6
votes
1answer
183 views

Why do we still have genetic disorders that show anticipation?

Anticipation whereby symptoms of genetic disorders occur earlier and with more severity as it is passed from one generation to the next. So wouldn't these inherited diseases over a few hundred ...
3
votes
1answer
118 views

Why does weight loss lower blood pressure?

I have read that weight loss is an effective lifestyle modification for people with hypertension, and systolic pressure may be reduced by up to 1-2 mmHg for every 1kg of weight lost. What is the ...
6
votes
2answers
428 views

Skin porosity in glans penis when erect

(Apologies if this is a too weird/inappropriate question in this forum. I only thought that I ask it since it happens to be part of human life.) The skin on a human typically blocks many substances ...
4
votes
1answer
121 views

Does DNA analysis allow determining amount of chromosomes?

Nowadays it is possible to sequence the DNA of extinct species, such as the Neanderthals, the Denisovans, and others. Is it possible to determine, solely from the sequenced DNA or from known bone ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

Estimating RPM to RCF in Methods from Older Papers

I'm attempting to replicate a cell biology method from a 1958 Laboratory Investigation paper. The protocol is for the isolation of an extracellular matrix protein, and a key step is a centrifugation ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Bug Identification: Is this small tubular, black bug a bed bug?

So I found this tiny bug on my wall in the bedroom of my apartment. I estimate it is about 3mm long by 1mm wide. Is it a bed bug? It does not seem to match any of the pictures I've seen online. ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Maximum heart rate increase/decrease while physically active [duplicate]

I'm a computer scientist and implementing a heart-rate monitor for physical exercise. While I try to improve my code, I stumbled over the question how fast the heart rate can change within a given ...
8
votes
1answer
207 views

How are bones growing, if bones are not connected to the brain?

If the bones are not connected to the brain, how is their growth controlled? This question is not a duplicate of the question Mechanisms of bone growth, as this question deals with how bone growth is ...
3
votes
1answer
516 views

Why do small fonts strain the eyes?

I understand that too much close reading will strain the ciliary muscles of the eyes. But what about small fonts? The contraction of the ciliary muscles is dependent on the distance not font size. In ...
5
votes
3answers
307 views

Studying effects of alcohol on cells

I am wondering about the logistics of a simple experiment with say 3 types of alcohols, and various concentrations of each, with a control(s) I would like to research the effects of alcohol on ...
4
votes
1answer
166 views

Why are most transcription factors enhancing the expression rather than repressing?

One can classify the effects of Transcription Factors (TF) on gene expression into two types: it either enhance or repress the gene expression. I have always been told that most of transcription ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...

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