2
votes
0answers
15 views

variance in zygotic gene expression across species

I found this review on the Maternal-to-Zygotic transition (MZT), describing how developmental control switches from maternally deposited RNAs to zygotic expression. I was struck by figure 1, and the ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

How is instinct carried from one generation to another?

How can non-structural information, specifically instinct (a fixed pattern of behavior that an organism reverts to as a response to certain stimuli), be passed on from generation to generation (such ...
7
votes
2answers
315 views

What determines the spiral direction of plants?

Some plants and vines spiral clockwise as they go along (right direction) and some spiral anticlockwise (left direction). What determines which direction they spiral along? At first I believed it to ...
1
vote
2answers
65 views

A non human adaptive behaviour with a spandrel

Is there any adaptive behaviour in non humans which, when it is functioning as it was selected to do, creates a spandrel behaviour? In evolutionary biology, a spandrel is a phenotypic ...
2
votes
0answers
16 views

Biofilm microtiter experimental design

We sequenced RNA using RNA-seq from biofilm (attached to bottom) and planktonic growing bacteria (supernatant) in 3 mL microtiter plates. I'm not sure how is possible to obtain planktonic cells ...
5
votes
1answer
145 views

Fats as energy source

As we know that the preferred source of energy for our body (source) are carbohydrates but heart muscle is an exception and need some explanation for this exception, that why the preferred source of ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

How does a metronome help in controlling breathing rate?

I'm new to the Bio/Medical field so kindly bear with me. I am doing studies on volunteers to formulate algorithms for evaluating Respiration rate from ECG and accelerometer data. I learned about this ...
1
vote
2answers
487 views

Organisms that contain rare chemical elements

By accident, I found a slide from a Polish chemical presentation, that talks about a small group of biological organisms which contain chemical elements not found in the human body, like: B (boron), ...
1
vote
0answers
90 views

Do bacteria precipitate in static liquid culture media?

We performed 36h biofilm cultures and would like to know if this time is enough to planktonic bacteria to precipitate. Since we observed biofilm formation one the surface of the microtiter plate. ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Correct/complete representation of RTPCR statistics

In papers reporting a relative quantification of gene expression by RTPCR, I often see a bar chart with mean ± standard error or deviation, with the deviation belonging to biological replicates. This ...
3
votes
0answers
135 views

Current Trend in Evolution of Human Intelligence

Up front, I am specifically not interested in philosophical or ethical considerations re Eugenics and related concepts. In an effort to receive a concise answer I'll post a narrowly defined question ...
6
votes
2answers
932 views

GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

Does freezing microorganisms such as probiotics kill them?

Does freezing microorganisms such as probiotics kill them? If not, what is the process that allows them to "come back to life" after the temperatures are increased? As an example, lets say you ...
10
votes
2answers
158 views

Do macrophages get nutritional value from the pathogens that they eat?

X-posted on reddit AskScience here. I know that macrophages engulf foreign bodies and transport them to various waste excretion pathways (sorry if the terminology is wrong), and if the foreign bodies ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

Why do plants produce so many hybrids as a kingdom?

Why do plants produce so many hybrids? I have read that they are the largest kingdom of organisms to do so. Does this have something to do with polyploidy events?
0
votes
0answers
247 views

Genetic Relationship Matrix

The classical definition of the Genetic Matrix G = ZZ'/2p(1-p) where Z = M - P where P = 2(p-0.5) I don't have a background in biology but understand Maths and ...
5
votes
1answer
51 views

Are prosauropods ancestors of all sauropods?

My daughter, while reading a book about dinosaurs, asked me if prosauropods are ancestors of all sauropods. Are they? From the name ("pro-sauropods"), I guess that they are, but am I right?
6
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the purpose of using two layers of gel in SDS- PAGE?

I just made a SDS-PAGE with a top layer of stacking gel and a bottom layer of separating gel with different pH values of 0.5M Tris-HCl. The stacking was 6.8 and the separating gel was 8.8. What about ...
3
votes
2answers
140 views

What is correct MVM vs. MMV?

I'm writing up a report and I see conflicts everywhere on the internet. Should it be Murine Minute Virus (MMV) or Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). The followup question is does it really matter.
3
votes
1answer
42 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Is there any alternative to cryopreserve cell lines without -80 freezer?

My university's -80 freezer just broke down and the repair will take 4 months according to the vendor. Is there any other way to preserve cells? Maintaining lot of flasks until the freezer is repaired ...
6
votes
1answer
302 views

Why is it harder to sequence plant genomes than animal genomes?

Plants seem to be less complex organisms than animals, but despite that there are less plant genomes sequenced. Is that because plant genomes are more complex, for example in terms of regulatory ...
7
votes
1answer
482 views

Why does the membrane of a neuron not stay at its depolarized state?

When an action potential is transmitted along the axon, the membrane reaches its depolarized state by opening Na+ channels. Both K+ (potassium) and Na+ (sodium) are now on both sides with close to ...
15
votes
2answers
326 views

Are there single-celled organisms that have evolved from multi-cellular ones?

I'm reading this paper about transmissible cancer cells in clams (Metzger et al. 2015) and I was wondering if there are any single-cellular organisms that are around today that are suspected as having ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Hopeful Monsters in Plants? [closed]

Does anyone know of any research/examples on Hopeful Monsters in Plants? I define Hopeful Monsters as organisms of a species that have macroevolutions to prompt new speciations. These ...
6
votes
1answer
113 views

Who are these biologists?

I know the third one in the front row is James Watson. Does anyone recognize the others?
7
votes
2answers
320 views

What is this bug?

I recorded a video of this bug: https://youtu.be/0eoWfHLEo7A I counted 8 legs, the front legs are a little curved. The drawing on the flat back is dark and looks like the image of Jesus with some ...
5
votes
0answers
108 views

SDS Laemmli Gel that did not solidify [closed]

In my lab class this week my partner and I were making a SDS-PAGE Laemmli Gel. We made the resolving gel solution which was made of 30% Acrylamide, DI water, 1.5 M Tris-HCL pH8.8, and 20% SDS. We ...
7
votes
1answer
108 views

Neuronal coordinates of C.elegans

Is there a list of neural coordinates for C.elegans? I need it to build a 3D model. Update: What is available at the moment is: full connectome for example, at openconnectome; neuron description ...
6
votes
2answers
154 views

What is the mechanism behind plants losing their leaves? [duplicate]

Do plants that lose their leaves (i.e., deciduous plants) do so because of external conditions (e.g., drought, cold), or because of an internal process? Another way of looking at it: if you take a ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Are Sciomyzidae fit to combat snails?

I read that Sciomyzidae are also called snail-killing flies, which immediateley made me think: "I need those"! Questions: Are they really fit to control snail over-population in my garden? and if ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Why are pharmacology studies so experimental?

I am a med student, and as far as I see from our pharmacology lectures, pharmacologists work almost completely experimental. Quite typically they take a substance (e.g., from nature), they add, change ...
8
votes
1answer
109 views

Do ant colonies prioritize survival of particular members above others?

In some (perhaps small) human communities people may starve because they have no income. This could be interpreted as a consequence of them not participating in the community, hence they don't get any ...
2
votes
1answer
729 views

Green Film Build up in Glass Water Bottle

So I have this Large Water Jug that I fill only water with. And this is the 2nd time there has been a layer of green film that builds up at the bottom of the bottle. I don't have any way of getting ...
7
votes
1answer
82 views

Do blood glucose “spikes” contribute to insulin resistance, or is prolonged elevation required?

There's increasing public discussion about the health risks of chronic insulin resistance* (IR). In many cases there's a focus on high glycemic index foods that "spike" your blood sugar, which implies ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Term for a leaf in a family tree

Imagine a family pedigree. Mathematically it is a graph, which consists of nodes and edges. Nodes being family members, and edges - their relationships. In a clinical setting, what is the proper ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

What are phenetic analyses used for?

Phenetics (grouping of organisms based on similarity) used to be claimed to be an alternative to cladistics, but now it is widely accepted that phenetic analyses cannot be used to infer evolutionary ...
5
votes
3answers
185 views

Can we knock out Caspase-9 *and* avoid breast cancer phenotype in our mouse model?

I am trying to design a wet lab experiment with no wet lab experience to name. Right now, in my dream land, it would be excellent if it were possible to create a Caspase-9 knockout mouse (damage to ...
3
votes
1answer
304 views

What is the difference between “physical interaction” and “genetic interaction”?

I searched sac1 in uniprot to know more about this gene. in interaction I selected this link and there I see that this gene has some "physical interactions" and "genetic interactions". I am wondering ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

Does hypothalamus regulate posterior pituitary gland?

We have the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-endocrine axis, but is there a similar chain of command for posterior pituitary gland such that oxycotin and vasopressin are regulated by some tropic ...
0
votes
2answers
869 views

Heterocyst function in cyanobacteria and its localization

1.What is the function of heterocyst? 2.Where it is present? A heterocyst I think may be a protecting organ in cells!
1
vote
0answers
41 views

from an ageing reproductive stem cell's DNA to baby's “brand new” somatic cells' DNA

On the one hand, somatic cells's DNA age as life goes on, mitosis after mitosis, and that is reflected into reduced telomeres. On the other hand, during life, reproductive stem cells must age too. ...
5
votes
3answers
133 views

What does it mean for a hormone to be “active”

In my textbook it is stated that the T3 hormone produced at the thyroid gland is 3-5 times more biologically active than T4. How is being active defined and how can this effect be measured?
3
votes
1answer
114 views

Microalgae without cell walls?

Most microalgae have rigid cell walls. Dunaliella Salina is a pretty famous example of an algae with no cell wall, but just a plasma membrane. Are there any other microalgae without a cell wall?. I ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

What is the insight of Frank Starling law of the heart?

The Frank Starling law appears to be a trivial observation: stroke volume is directly related to the end diastolic volume In everyday language, as more blood fills the heart, the heart pumps more ...
11
votes
1answer
264 views

Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
2
votes
0answers
269 views

Can a person's body produce enough electricity to break a wristwatch? [closed]

I know of someone who cannot seem to wear watches without the battery dying or something else about the watch going haywire. this person was told it is because their body is producing too much ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

How is ATP involved in muscle contraction?

The sliding filament mechanism as explained by my text does not elaborate on how ATP is involved in the cross bridge binding and contraction process. How does muscle contraction utilize ATP? In my ...
0
votes
1answer
290 views

What is a complex?

In my text book it says that "Troponin" is a complex of Troponin C, I and T. In this sense, what is the relation between Troponin complex and C, I, T?
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Retrovirus Production

I have been having difficulties with low transduction efficiencies of my retrovirus production. I expand my plasmid of interest (on MiG-GFP plasmid) in DH5α E Coli for ~24 hours, purify with Qiagen ...

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