4
votes
1answer
79 views

What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
5
votes
2answers
154 views

Can botulinum toxin be grown or kept from denaturing in an UNWRAPPED 50 pound hay bale?

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin protein created when botulism spores grow. The requirements for growth and/or for keeping the toxin from denaturing would seem to be very difficult to create in bale ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Difference in length of Okazaki fragments

The length of Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand is about 100-200 nucleotides in eukaryotes and about 1000-2000 nucleotides in prokaryotes. What (molecular mechanism, enzyme type ) ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

difference between ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprived medium

Ischemia is roughly defined as insufficient blood flow to a specific region of the body and in the literature it is generally considered as causing oxygen and glucose deprivation in the tissue and ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

dbSNP database table desciptions

I am trying to build a local implementation of dbSNP. I would like to know the descriptions of tables listed on ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/database/organism_data/human_9606 and on ...
4
votes
2answers
436 views

Why digest proteins into peptides for Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry?

Digesting (trypsin or whatever other proteolytic enzyme) proteins generates multiple peptides so the degree of complexity of the sample, at the peptide level, increases a lot. In addition there is ...
20
votes
1answer
696 views

Do trees age on a microscopic level?

Most animals age via at least two mechinisms: at a "macroscopic" level, basically wear and tear to the point where (on evolutionary time scales) it's more genetically advantageous to optimize for ...
5
votes
2answers
8k views
1
vote
1answer
614 views

What are garlic's effects on DHT?

Most antiandrogens inhibit DHT. DHT is connected to testosterone. [1] shows a beneficial effect on prostate cancer which can be caused by DHT. However, according to [2] garlic also increases ...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

Valid comparison of gene expression between several genes in several cell lines

We have gene expression data (Affimetrix mRNA gene expression results) for several cell lines, over a set of genes. Our goal would be to be able to compare relative gene expression for genes over the ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Can someone who is color blind recover color vision by surgical means?

I am currently studying color blindness, and there is no medicine that can help it. Is it possible nonetheless for someone who is color blind to have their eyes restored to normal color vision by ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

How do climate and location affect the Pine Processionary moth?

I have statistics on the occurence of the Pine Processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa); we have the regions that are located in Algeria, infested area in percent, the defiliation degree (small, ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Silene virginica Endangered in FL

Why is Silene virginica, colloquially known as Fire Pink, endangered in Florida? What factors besides human industrialization are affecting its survival there?
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Primers on Dystonia

Where can I get a good biochemical overview of dystonia? I will be working in a research lab that focuses on dystonia and I would like to not be clueless.
3
votes
1answer
59 views

Mode of inheritance - DYT1 Dystonia

Homozygous DYT1 mutation carriers have not been reported in humans. Does this mean that the mode of inheritance for dystonia (DYT1) is autosomal dominant? This to me implies that if one has both ...
2
votes
0answers
62 views

What is this red liquid produced by a fungal colony?

In a jar, where I had some orchid plants, a fungi start growing few days ago. I removed the plants and let the fungi to expand and grow more. After some days, red drops started to appear on the ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Is the sense for salt depending on the electrolyte level in our body?

I often noticed, after (heavy) physical activity like cycling, running, swimming or working an isotonic drink (to recover the electrolyte level) tastes less "salty" compared to when drinking it before ...
2
votes
2answers
312 views

What are these strings used to describe animals?

For example, what's a $dt^{sz}$ hamster? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1144494/). What's a Rgs9-Cre/+;gtROSA/+ mouse? ...
4
votes
1answer
502 views

Why Isolated, recombinant plasmid DNA without any restriction is often detected in agarose gel electrophoresis as three DNA bands?

I don't understand why three bands are found without any restriction digest. Please answer me as soon as possible. Thank you
4
votes
1answer
126 views

What percentage of human capillaries are located in the skin?

As in the subject line, what percentage of capillaries in a human (expressed in terms of total length, I suppose) are located in the skin, as opposed to internal organs? Google scholar has not turned ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

How are minerals formed by biological processes?

News to me is that about 4500 of the 4900 minerals on Earth have been created by life. What are some examples of such processes? Are some minerals formed inside the human body?
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Does the most common definition of “allele” include a change in phenotype?

I'm prepping an activity for my biology students on cystic fibrosis. There are about 2000 different mutations of the CFTR gene that cause CF. Since the final phenotype is pretty much the same, can I ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

How many blood types are there? [duplicate]

In total how many blood types are there? And why do people normally know only 8 of them? (A+, B+ , AB+ and O+ and Rh- counterparts)
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Is there any measure by which the Germans today could be called a genetically superior race? [closed]

The Nazi eugenics programs are well known. Despite their controversy, I cannot find any indication on their effectiveness. Were there ever and studies done on the (arguably subjective definition of) ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

What are the criteria for determining the origin and end of muscle anatomically?

For example the pectoralis muscle starts from sternum region and ends on the acromion or coracoid process. Why you can't say that it starts acromion process and ends on the sternum?
6
votes
1answer
102 views

Can we really 'discover' 85% of mammalian viruses?

This virology [blog] discusses estimates of the number of mammalian viruses and the costs of 'discovering' 85% of them. My question is whether this is not a forlorn hope. The ".632 rule" in ...
3
votes
2answers
69 views

Has an artificial symbiotic relationship ever been created?

Have 2 organisms ever been introduced to create a symbiotic relationship that doesn't occur in their natural environment?
3
votes
1answer
60 views

How specific is the adaptive immune response?

When you read about the adaptive immune response, you are often told that the response is specific to each pathogen - that the response is tailored. My question is - to what extent is this really ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

How do penicillin resistant bacteria grow slower in the presence of penicillin?

We put 2 flasks inoculated with Bacillus cereus in 37⁰C: one with 100μg/ml penicillin + 50μg/ml chloramphenicol and the other without penicillin. We found that the OD is higher in the one without the ...
5
votes
1answer
51 views

Is there a good explanation for this swarming pattern?

A film clip would be helpful here. A few days ago I noticed a swarm of newly hatched flying bugs about 20 feet away from me with the sun behind them so the shape of swarming (such as it was) was easy ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

What is the close and related genome used for in Gene models?

all I am a little bit confused about using the related genome or reference genome. When we have a reference genome, we can do alignment. Also we can do the assembly. Can you give some more reason ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

level of organisation of proteins

Is there any disulphide bond in a quaternary structured protein? If yes, please provide examples. In tertiary structured proteins, what is(are) the most important characteristic(s) of tertiary ...
7
votes
1answer
181 views

Why do flies fly in circles?

Lying on my bed, doing nothing I recently noticed flies usually fly in small circles, right under my ceiling lamp. Worth noting - the lamp was off as it was middle of a day. And those flies kept ...
19
votes
1answer
516 views

Natural examples of XOR functions at the cellular level

We can often think of cells as a sort of circuit on macromolecules, and can show that they can accurately and robustly implement functions like $\text{MAJ}(x_1,...,x_n)$ (return $1$ if more than half ...
9
votes
3answers
3k views

How is the fluoride in toothpaste absorbed?

How is the fluoride in toothpaste absorbed by our body? Does the tooth absorb the molecule directly, or is it absorbed by the mouth? The answers to this question suggest that some materials can be ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Science experiments at home with Minimal Cost

What is a good recipe for making agar at home for a minimal cost? Are there materials that could be found in the kitchen cabinet?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

The probability of indirect human fertilization?

What is the probability of conception in situations when sperm isn't directly ejaculated into the woman's vagina, like: The man's or the woman's hands come into contact with sperm, for example when ...
3
votes
0answers
114 views

Electrodes in the brain and 'repetitive orgasms' [closed]

The advent of chlorpromazine in 1955 put an end to one of the more bizarre chapters in American psychiatry.$^1$ Dr. Robert Heath implanted wires or delivered injections of acetylcholine (a ...
4
votes
1answer
201 views

Local storage of NCBI database in MongoDB [closed]

My short term goal in a project is to build a local database of the NCBI dbSNP database. The data and schema are available on the FTP site(). I was going to implement the database using MySQL, but I ...
7
votes
1answer
195 views

What is the best file format to store gel images?

I store many gel images which are included in my Latex notebooks. The geldoc software normally produces TIFF files, however, Latex only accepts PNG or JPEG. If I am going to store only a single copy ...
3
votes
1answer
296 views

What does 'H' in BamHI stand for?

It's not explained on the wikipedia page. So if, apparently, 'H' is not relevant, why is it part of the name? And if it is relevant, why is it not explained?
2
votes
2answers
92 views

Databases for metabolic pathways of human disease

Which databases contain the metabolic pathway of human diseases? I have searched Metacyc and KEGG but didn't find the appropriate metabolic pathway.
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Is the tomato a very very close relative of the pepper?

I ask because if you look at a tomato, the way it grows on a vine, its color, the texture, and make up of its skin and internal structure it seems very much like a pepper. The only thing I can think ...
0
votes
2answers
112 views

alpha tubulin molecular weight problem

Is there any academic reference that shows α-tubulin is around 50-55 kDa? The only thing I found is some data sheets from companies. I need the real reference.
4
votes
4answers
10k views

Why are mosquitoes repelled by smoke?

A well known way to have a rest of mosquitoes during camping is to stand in the fire's smoke. Moreover, I learned recently that shepherds in certain regions of Africa use the same tactic for cattle. ...
2
votes
2answers
133 views

What are the naming conventions for mutations of proteins?

I have been reading about Maltose Binding Proteins. Mutant forms of the molecule seem to be named MalE_ where the _ represents a number, for example MalE36 or MalE50. Please can someone explain the ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Can TGF beta family induce all somatic stem cells?

I think this is not possible. Conclusion about this preview article TGF-$\beta$ family signaling in stem cells: While TGF-$\beta$ family signaling regulates stemness of normal and cancer stem ...
0
votes
2answers
147 views

Can jellyfish swim backwards?

Jellyfish use jet propulsion to move forward, according to http://earthsky.org/earth/how-do-jellyfish-swim. Otherwise, they drift with the ocean currents. Does this mean that, without the presence of ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Why some neurons are tetraploid

Why are some neurons tetraploid, and how does this result from it's ancestor cell ?
1
vote
2answers
445 views

How many recombination events are there per generation in humans?

I'm looking for a reference that tells me how many recombenation events occur in humans from one generation to the next. Assuming that the human genome is a 3.3 GigaBases long DNA sequence, how many ...

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