2
votes
1answer
57 views

Are added yogurt cultures harmful to the gut?

I have read somewhere that the live culture added to yogurt acting as "healthy" gut bacteria are actually synthetic and harmful. Any truth to this? If so, what are some alternatives to getting good ...
3
votes
2answers
489 views

How did aquatic dinosaurs go extinct?

Dominant theory is that 'normal' dinosaurs went extinct from ether super volcano or meteor impact or combination of both. However there were aquatic dinosaurs that are not present at this day. Was it ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

How is Microenvironment strictly defined?

I started to think this definition of Wikipedia: Microenvironment (biology), a small or relatively small usually distinctly specialized and effectively isolated biophysical environment (as of ...
8
votes
1answer
190 views

Can a human cell live indefinetely in a controlled environment?

How long can a human cell live in a controlled environment, given all necessary nutrients, temperatures, mechanisms for waste removal, and other requirements are provided for? Put differently: Can a ...
5
votes
2answers
55 views

Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine.
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Fate of erythrocytes after splenectomy

The spleen is considered a graveyard for red blood cells. So in case of Splenectomy (complete surgical removal of the spleen), what would be the fate of red blood cells? Would this cause Polycythemia? ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

To what extent is Ebola airborne? (aerosols)

Recently, CIDRAP at the University of Minnesota announced that Ebola may be more transmissible through aerosols than previously thought. I lack the familiarity with the field to critically evaluate ...
4
votes
2answers
516 views

Does trypsin strip flask coating?

Mammalian cell/tissue cultures sometimes require flasks coated with proteins. My uneducated guess is that these proteins mimic the ECM, perhaps the basal lamina, so finicky contact-dependent cells can ...
5
votes
1answer
105 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

What enables azacitidine to incorporate into both DNA and RNA?

I did a mini-project on the drug azacitidine for my pharmacology class, and I learned that azacitidine has the ability to incorporate into both DNA and RNA. I think this is really unique because a ...
3
votes
1answer
229 views

What does the root “phyllum” mean used botanical binomial nomenclature

I often encounter the root "phyllum" in bionomial names in botany, but I've had trouble finding an actual definition for this root in any Latin dictionary outside of its taxonomic meaning. From ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Concentration of caffeine in physiologically relevant setting

Caffeine is known to overcome G2/M (and possibly other types of) cell cycle arrest through its effects on DNA repair machinery and is used as a positive control in studies of cell cycle arrest. In ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Nature Scientific Reports vs. BMC Genomics

I do not know if this question to suitable here or not. I posted it as I think biologists can help me in this question. If not suitable here, then I am sorry for that. I have written paper which I ...
1
vote
2answers
129 views

What kind of technology is required for plant seed DNA printing? [closed]

I'm a programmer so I have little knowledge in the field of biology. However I have an interest in plants, GMOs and DNA (in terms of programming). So, I want to know what kind of technology is ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Do all species have asymmetric female meiosis?

In all the examples I can think of, (mostly vertebrate), female meiosis, or oogenesis, only haploid gamete is produced while the other cell divisions result in polar bodies. While male meiosis results ...
2
votes
2answers
108 views

Book recommended for neurobiology

I am looking for a good explanatory book concerning Neurobiology. I am interested on how the brain works but prior to this I believe that I have to start learning things about the biology of neurons. ...
1
vote
1answer
646 views

How do ants transport water?

All living things need water to survive. Worker ants can drink directly from the source. But a queen ant would need help from the colony to get its daily supply of food and water. I have seen ants ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Physiology of benign eye twitching?

About four times in my life I have experienced the feeling of my eyelid fluttering for a few minutes by itself, and then it stops. I have talked to other people who have had the same experience so I ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

More extreme phenotypes when parents are from diverged populations

In quantitative traits we have many loci affecting a trait. If we took a bunch of parents where all mothers and fathers were of a certain value at the upper end of a trait range, and then looked at ...
0
votes
1answer
105 views

How non-invasive blood glucose concentration measurement work?

Diabetes patients need to conduct the “fingerstick” a few times a day. One of the mechanisms of "fingerstick" is to take small amount of blood sample and put it onto a test strip. The enzyme on the ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

How non-invasive blood glucose concentration measurement work? [duplicate]

Diabetes patients need to conduct the “fingerstick” a few times a day. One of the mechanisms of "fingerstick" is to take small amount of blood sample and put it onto a test strip. The enzyme on the ...
2
votes
1answer
205 views

What causes a polypeptide to fold into an Alpha helix over a Beta pleated sheet

I know how they fold, but what causes some polypeptide chains to preferably fold into Alpha-helix rather than Beta-sheets (or vice-versa). What force makes it fold into one conformation over the ...
3
votes
2answers
313 views

Is the Hypothalamus part of the Central Nervous System or Endocrine System

Sorry for a certainly naive question. Some references (for example https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivide.html) seem to to indicate that the hypothalamus is part of the Central Nervous ...
3
votes
0answers
104 views

Niche differentiation in birds of prey

I'm not much of an ornithologist but I know enough to distinguish most Central European birds of prey. To me it is amazing that there are so many species that seem to occupy the same niche. Especially ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis on matrices with missing data

I have a matrix of sites where not all the environmental variables I want to assess were sampled. In other words, there are sites with the whole set of variables sampled, and there are other sites ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Found a larva in my broccoli, is it a Small White (Pieris rapae)?

Found this living larva in broccoli from a store. It was about 10 mm long. It was in july this year, and I don't remember the country of origin for the broccoli. A bit of googling makes me think it ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

Can you find malaria parasites in saliva?

Can you find plasmodium parasites (malaria) in saliva under microscope from someone who's infected? Or it's only in the blood?
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Do gibbons have a monogamous sexuality?

the question is already in the title. If possible, it might be extended to: Have animal taxa (mammal) who tend to live in a family structure have a monogamous sexuality? Or are there cases of these ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

Do you produce more sperm after 1 week of abstinence vs 1 year of abstinence [duplicate]

Question: I was wondering if the amount of sperm increase with the amount of abstinence? Side questions: Is their a max amount of sperm? What happens with the excess amount?
1
vote
1answer
95 views

Difference between medicinal caffeine and regular caffeine

There are some OTC paracetamol tablets, some with caffeine. Is this caffeine the same as the regular caffeine (found in a coffee)? Does it perform better than it in any way?
1
vote
1answer
126 views

How prominent is the gene-centric view of evolution among professional researchers?

Richard Dawkins famously advocated a gene-centric (as opposed to organism-centric) viewpoint on natural selection, most notably in The Extended Phenotype. However, I have also heard "on the grapevine" ...
1
vote
2answers
106 views

What are the sources of energy that alcohol provides?

Milk contains sugar and proteins which give energy. What compounds in alcoholic beverages (edited) give energy? Are they more likely to turn into fat (as in beer belly) than blood glucose?
3
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the difference between eugenics and evolution by natural selection?

So with the working definition of Eugenics: "the aim to improve the human gene pool". What are key features that distinguish Eugenics from evolution by natural selection? I mean, besides that natural ...
7
votes
2answers
351 views

HIV and effectiveness of inhibitor cocktail over single inhibitor

I'm looking for clarification on the answer to this question. It's in my biochemistry class but I figured this is more Biology than Chemistry, so I'm asking it here. The question is: One of the ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

How reactive are reduced antioxidant molecules?

When antioxidant molecules stabilize free radicals, they themselves become unstable and reactive but to a lesser degree. How reactive are these reduced antioxidant molecules? And what substance ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Why are the largest land/air animals today smaller than in the Mesozoic?

The largest dinosaurs and pterosaurs seem to have been much larger than the largest animal terrestrial/avian species since. Was the Mesozoic somehow more hospitable to large animal species than ...
1
vote
1answer
138 views

Molecular Cloning- Blunt end restriction endonucleases

I work in a microbiology lab where we do a lot of cloning. I have always used restriction endonucleases to cleave the DNA to have sticky ends and not blunt ends. I currently am working on a project ...
11
votes
1answer
841 views

Are there birds with knees instead of elbows?

Are there any birds whose legs fold the same way human legs do, in a knee, instead of an elbow which is what all the birds I know have?
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Alkaline Phosphatase

What is the predominant purpose of Alkaline Phosphatase in skeletal muscle fibers and liver cells. I know that it is a hydrolase enzyme that speeds up the degredation of proteins, lipids, starch and ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Is there any research paper which identifies left and right brained behavior?

There are many web puzzle to identify, but does it really have any scientific proof? something like - http://braintest.sommer-sommer.com/en/ any logic behind it?
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Forum on synthetic biology and hypothetical biology?

I am interested in synthetic biology, but not a scientist, and would like some advice on where to look for an online forum on synthetic biology and creating fictional species and animals or if someone ...
7
votes
3answers
282 views

Why do I feel funny in my tummy when riding a virtual roller coaster?

I've ridden a virtual roller coaster on an Oculus Rift. I felt tension as I went up to the top, but more interestingly I actually felt my stomach drop when I went down the steep drop on the other ...
1
vote
0answers
98 views

Dead skin cell decomposition

What would be the resultant by-products of a completely decomposed dead skin cell? What would be the size of each of the by-products of a decomposed dead skin cell? How long would it take for a dead ...
1
vote
2answers
790 views

How do kidney cells excrete their own wastes?

The kidney is composed of tissues, and those tissues are made up of numerous cells - so how do these cells excrete their wastes? Lastly, are there any wastes in the venous blood (renal vein), what ...
5
votes
2answers
133 views

Burning fat transferred from one part of the body to another

While doing some research on cosmetic surgery, I discovered that there are several ways of doing breast enhancements, one of which was using body fat. While I haven't researched this method, I assume ...
3
votes
1answer
397 views

Is the activity of enzymes in the human body affected by the outer temperature?

I have to do a research about the enzymes in the human body and the things that affect them. I know that the body temperature affects the activity of enzyemes but I'd like to know if the outer ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Is there a maximum size for an insect?

I have read in biology text-books that one of the most important constraints on the size of an insect happens to be the importance of the surface-volume ratio. It simply states that if we assume ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Help me understand my membrane potential assignment

Epithelial with the ability to transport NaCl is bathed in an isotonic salt solution with these values (in mM): 136 Na, 6 K, 140 Cl. The intracellular concentrations are: 45 Na, 100 K, 13 Cl. The ...
6
votes
1answer
113 views

Which organs in the body are responsible for measuring temperature?

As an instrumentation engineer, I have designed temperature control systems capable of measuring and controlling temperature with a precision of 0.001K over a wide temperature range. I have always ...
8
votes
1answer
207 views

Hill's function for translational regulation

Transcriptional regulation is generally modeled as a Hill's function (similar to Michaelis-Menten Kinetics): $$\frac{dm_X}{dt}=\alpha _{m_X}.\frac{R}{K+R} -\beta _{m_X}.m_X$$ Where $m_X$ is the mRNA ...

15 30 50 per page