1
vote
2answers
33 views

Why aren't introns found on the ends of pre-RNA?

We recently learned in genetics class that exons always cap the ends of nascent RNA. I have been trying to figure out the reason why introns can't instead be found on the ends instead of exons. The ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

What is the difference between clinical and non-clinical depression, and is there a term for different severity of the bipolar disorder?

I was looking for a term which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity. I know from experience from someone I know well, what a very severe case of the bipolar disorder looks like, when an ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

What is the “Spandrels” debate about?

In a former question, as a side question, I asked a clarification about the "Spandrels" paper. Being not a biologist, it was the first time I encoutered it. Subsequently I tried to collect some ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Does gray/white hair turn gray/white from a normal hair? or does a gray/white hair actually grow gray/white originally?

I am really curious if hair actually tuns white/gray from default color, or does it have a defect as it is made and grows out of your head a different color?
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

How can i download a gene secuence from GenBank (NCBI)?

Could you tell me the steps for to found and download a gene secuence from GeneBank?. I would appreciate your help.
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Question about two parasites

How closely related (from the evolutional point of view) are parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis? Giardia genome is about 12 Mb and its major cellular proceses are rather simple. ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

SRC & RSV virus origins

When a virus infects a cell it undergoes recombination with cell genome. I understand how recombination happens. So in the process, is a gene from virus delivered into human genome or human genome ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Where is the line between Anaerobic and Aerobic?

I am well aware of traditional anaerobic respiration (lactic acid or alcohol produced - no Krebs cycle) and traditional aerobic respiration (O2 is used at the end of the Citric acid cycle). I am ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is Paracetamol so great?

Every time I get ill (cold, flu etc) I take a couple of these wonderful tablets for up to 4 times a day and I, eventually, get better. What exactly is paracetamol? Why is it so effective and is it ...
3
votes
1answer
501 views

What is the fiber axis in the Watson and Crick paper?

I was reading Watson and Crick's article on DNA structure, and the diagram on the lower left of the first page had something called the fiber axis going through the DNA. This axis isn't in modern ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Is intron removal coordinated?

Are the introns present in a nascent rna molecule removed simultaneously or are they removed in some sort of sequential fashion or is removal completely random?
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Linkage disequilibrium D sign

Linkage disequilibrium D equals D=x11−p1⋅q1 where: Haplotype > Frequency A1B1 > x11 A1B2 > x12 A2B1 > x21 A2B2 > x22 and Allele Frequency A1 > ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Plotting metabolic networks?

I need to draw a map of the core metabolism of E.coli. Associated with each reaction in the map I have a number that indicates the flux through this reaction. I want the map to reflect these fluxes ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How does temperature influences rate of protein decay?

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my ...
5
votes
2answers
122 views

What is an irreversible reaction?

There are reactions with large Delta G negative values. Why these reactions are irreversible? As in: out of 10 steps of Glycolysis, 3 are irreversible steps. I need an explanation for why they are ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Why would taking antibiotics increase stamina and energy?

I often hear that people who are taking antibiotics experience wild fluctuations between feeling full of energy and completely alert but soon after feeling impossibly fatigued and sick. Does this ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Is it possible to calculate the energy required to speak a word?

I was discussing with a colleague whether speaking would require more energy than communicated via instanct message (GTalk etc..). If this is possible then I'm particularly interested in whether ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Knowledge about Organelles

As we know, there are various organelles present inside a cell. Let's consider mitochondria for example. My questions are -> Do we understand the composition, structural and functional features of ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Are there any drawbacks to having a fixed-Köhler microscope?

I am considering to buy the Zeiss Primo star microscope. There are two variants: one with so called "Full Köhler" illumination and one with "Fixed-Köhler" illumination. Are there any drawbacks to ...
-2
votes
1answer
38 views

What is the difference between regular blood, a woman's and a virgin's menstrual blood?

There are many stories that blood contains the life-force energy and specifically menstrual (period) blood has always been a feature of many rituals and some ancient Sumerian tablets mentioned that ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Could this Francobelgian comic book woman really have these 4 diseases at the same time?

I'm doing an archive binge of a paper comic "The Kiekeboes". One of the characters is an elderly woman currently at the doctor, and she says the has the following illnesses: Erythema Exsudativum ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How to calculate when the velocity declines in an Enzyme Kinetics Problem

If you have an E,S pair that has KM and Vmax values of 2 mM and 1 mM/sec/μM enzyme and you start the reaction with 10 mM [S] and 1 μM [E], approximately how long will the E,S system stay in the ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

What is MHC haplotype? [on hold]

What is MHC haplotype? I did check out the wiki article, but did not understand. (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if ...
-2
votes
1answer
22 views

Affinity isolated peptide

What is affinity isolated peptides??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if someone can describe it in simple language it ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Does unequal dominance mean the X-chromosome should be a coldspot for antagonistic variation?

Sexually antagonistic genetic variation, in a simple model, will persist if the benefit to one sex is (near) equal to the cost in the other, otherwise the polymorphism will be selected out of the ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

Help Needed Identifying Corvids

I'd appreciate some help identifying these three corvids I photographed in Austria during the Summer: I know identifying corvids can be difficult, I'm not an ornithologist, just an amateur bird ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Manufacturing of Bio Molecules [on hold]

Can we Manufacture bio molecules say e.g. the simplest Sugar, C12,H22,O11 the way we do with any other mechanical component. So, we know all about the Structure and arrangement of Atoms in Sugar - so ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Exclusive microtubule -end labeling

Like the title explains I am looking for a way to exclusively label microtubule minus end in vivo. Looking through the literature I could not find any techniques yet. Do you have an idea?
6
votes
2answers
67 views

RNA-Seq library construction challenges: the biases of RNA fragmentation vs cDNA fragmentation

I recently watched a presentation on RNA-seq that covered some of the choices one can make along the way, and I didn't fully understand one of the choices in particular. Near the beginning of the ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Oxygen requirements of eukaryotes

Is any of you aware of any resources where I can find information about the oxygen requirement for growth of eukaryotes? As an example, say I'd like to know whether Candida dubliniensis, ...
-2
votes
0answers
15 views

Doubt regarding COBEpro [on hold]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19074155 This link contains the summery of how to predict continuous B-cell epitope. Can someone please explain this to me?? I did read it, but failed to make out ...
4
votes
2answers
299 views

What's the longest transcript known?

What's the longest functional transcript known? I'm wondering about RNA length post splicing, so not including introns.
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Educational Materials (Graded) for Human Biology and Chemistry

I was wondering if anyone could recommend educational materials and resources (such as text books) that covers human biology and chemistry together, preferably with beginning, intermediated and ...
3
votes
3answers
92 views

Why can't you just take a vitamin? Why you need a healthy diet on top of that?

From what I understand, your body needs certain amounts of vitamins and minerals to maintain health. Why can't we just take enough pills to obtain these vitamins and minerals?
4
votes
2answers
42 views

Are there known downsides to removing UV mutation hotspots to prevent some skin cancers (Genetic sunblock)?

Khavari et al. recently demonstrated that a significant fraction of one of the major forms of skin cancer (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with a mutated KNSTRN gene (a protein ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Counterintuitive action of Vitamin D?

Vitamin D acts in a way which to me is counterintuitive. It functionally supplemets Parathormone. It in the intestinal tract steps up calcium absorption by altering nuclear gene expression and also ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

How does Humira work when injected into patients with rheumatoid arthritis?

OK, I have rheumatoid arthritis and I've been injecting Humira 2 times a month for the last 8 months. As far as I know rheumatoid arthritis is simply an immune system disorder which makes the immune ...
4
votes
2answers
127 views

Where do the 31 spinal nerves start/meet?

Which part of the brain is the first place (from top to bottom) where all 31 pairs of spinal nerves (on each side) meet? Or if they all start at one place - where is that? Nominally, the beginning of ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Drugs metabolism and detection

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder, for example diazepine, would traces of the metabolized drug show in their sweat or saliva? Would it be chemically detectable?Any links to ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Why do cockroaches burst from soapy water?

(careful, disturbing!) I was experimenting with some stray cockroaches that ended up falling in my bath tub overnight (there is currently an infestation undergoing in my apartment building) and I ...
2
votes
2answers
18 views

Question about flavodiiron protein

I came across an article about flavodiiron proteins that are responsible for reducing ${\rm O}_2$ to ${\rm H}_2{\rm O}$ thereby protecting the anaerobic prokaryotes and some eukaryotes from oxidative ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

Why do baby mammals tend to play?

Why do babies of any mammal tend to play ? From humans to small dog pups, cubs of a lion, baby bears, etc. *I am not sure if the tag I chose is correct or not. Please correct me if I'm wrong.
4
votes
1answer
45 views

How efficient is the human body at metabolizing food?

My friend and I were having a discussion over how "efficient" human digestion is. If a human ate a 1000 calorie hamburger, how many of those calories (how much energy) does the body process into ...
3
votes
1answer
26 views

Question about microaerophilic parasite tolerance for oxygen

Does anyone know what is the maximal concentration of oxygen that can be tolerated by the parasite Giardia intestinalis?
2
votes
1answer
25 views

How many water molecules will be generated when single nucleotides are used to make this RNA: 5’-UUAACCGUCAG-3’?

Based on what we learned on condensation reactions, how many water molecules will be generated when single nucleotides are used to make this RNA: 5’-UUAACCGUCAG-3’ I had an online biology quiz with ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

Kinesiology Tape Benefits

Recently, kinesiology tape has become popular, especially in CrossFit. I have also noted its' use in the NFL, and I want to say Tennis as well. What beneficial effects does this tape offer our bodies ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

What are the benefits of statins in terms of prolonging life?

Recently the UK government suggested that all adults over the age of 50, without exception, would benefit from taking statins. I have an elderly female relative who may, or may not have had a minor ...
5
votes
4answers
100 views

Appropriate Buffer for electerophoresis of DNA & Protein TBE or TAE?

Which buffer is best for DNA Electrophoresis and which is best for Protein to be have a sharp bond? Considering a higher electrical conductivity compared to TAE & TBE and the generation of less ...

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