0
votes
0answers
3 views

why humans have only two nipples?

whereas other animals have more than 2 nipples, then why humans have only 2 nipples? Even my pet dog has more than 2 nipples.
0
votes
0answers
4 views

how much pressure is given to blood by heart, to circulate whole body?

Heart pumps the blood, how much pressure is given to blood by heart, so it has to circulate whole body?
0
votes
0answers
5 views

where does the blood circulation starts & end?

I know blood circulation never end, but i want to know which is starting & ending position? i am thinking blood circulation goes like this: Kidney ->lung -> Heart->body->(again)Kidney
3
votes
1answer
44 views

How Circumcision could reduce the chance for a HIV infection?

Circumcision removes the foreskin of the penis which mainly acts as a cover to the penis. Normally removing the foreskin makes more vulnerable to any STD, so how could circumcision reduce the risk of ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Poisonous plants, animals, mushrooms: is this always a kind of defense?

I wonder whether developing deadly toxins in the organism's body is always or usually a defensive strategy rather than a by-product.
0
votes
1answer
14 views

What is the exact chemical composition of human body?

I've just watched Breaking Bad Season 01 Episode 03. In that Walter gives the chemical composition of human body. The conversation is as follows Walter White: Let's break it down. Hydrogen. What does ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Is there a stem cell/ biogel method exist for muscle and tendon lengthening?

Is there a stem cell/ biogel method exist for muscle and tendon lengthening? It is known that height surgery is limit to six inches with two surgeries and three inches each, it is also true that it ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

why growth of hair thickens after a razor shave but not for trimmer?

i don't understand, if razor cuts only the hair then how growth of hair thickens & but not for trimmer? if both are used for hair removal, why there is difference in hair growth? i used ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Why do human ears have a lower boundary for the lowest energy perceivable signal than eyes?

I am currently hearing a lecture about human machine interaction. The lecturer is not a biologist (neither am I, we are both computer scientists), but he makes some statements about biology which I ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Do the cognitive systems of all insects work exactly the same? [on hold]

Do the cognitive systems of all insects work exactly the same, without considering the predator/prey basis, do there exist any common behavioural patterns for insects all together. Do the arachnids ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

What can myelination tell you about the evolution of sensory receptors?

I am reading Avi Chaudhuri's Fundamentals of Sensory Perception and wondering if the information given about the somatosensory system could tell us anything about the way it evolved. It seems (at ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

What is different between the pigment of giraffes and the pigment of flowers?

I saw this video created by Derek Muller and he says there that it is very unusual to evolutionary develop the colour of the skin without the pigment. That sounds reasonable but if so, what nutrients ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Regarding the apoptosis mechanisms in cells and cancer

If all the cells in a cancerous tumour had their apoptosis mechanisms 'turned back on' or reactivated or repaired by some 'yet to be discovered' process would this cause the tumour to 'self destruct' ...
4
votes
1answer
24 views

Restriction Mapping - Homework question

I have trouble in solving this exercise. Exercise A circular plasmid of 10,000 base pairs (bp) is digested with two restriction enzymes,A and B, to produce a 3000 bp and a 2000 bp bands when ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Possibility of Human cloning

Techonology has evolved so much as to clone animals. But, what about human cloning? Is it really possible to create humans in lab? Or is it that technology has not advanced to that level..? Why cant ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

B-cell and T-cell activation by parasites

Parasitic infections lead to the production of parasite-specific IgE, but they also lead to the activation of nonspecific, polyclonal B-cells and T-cells. How do parasites trigger non-specific ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How to do an alanine scan using Rosetta?

I have a complex of two proteins interacting. I define their interface of interaction as the set of residues that are less than 5 Angstroms from each other. I want to do an alanine scan on one of the ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Why eyes itches instead of giving pain?

If any foriegn particles touches the eye, we get itching sensation & if we caught with eye infection then also it gives itching sensation, Why eyes itches instead of giving pain?
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
0
votes
0answers
10 views

To Study Interactions of two molecules in PubChem

Assume you have two substances Diosminum / Hesperidinum. The former strengthens vascular walls. The latter has role in some glycoside biosynthesis. From Biochemistry, I recall that glycodises have ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Types of movement in cell [on hold]

Does this sentence true or not ( Passive movement uses energy whereas active movement consumes energy in the form of ATP in cell .)?it was read in a book
-1
votes
1answer
37 views

Henrietta Lacks and HeLa cells

I don't get it. How come she's dead when her cells don't die? Is it only the cells from her cervix that is immortal? So the cervical cancer took her life and the cells never died? From what I ...
2
votes
0answers
15 views

Does the rate of iterations improve evolutionary outcomes?

I understand that biological creatures evolved through perhaps billions of iterations to get to where we are today. It is easy to see that the more iterations or generations, the stronger/resilient ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Incomplete dominance vs. codominance at the level of protein production and function? [on hold]

What is the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance at the level of protein production and function?
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Converting fmri data to association matrix

I am currently working on a new tool for the analysis of (large) weighted networks. Association matrices (correlation matrices) as obtained from fMRI data are perfect examples of the kind of data I am ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How is incomplete dominance different from codominance?

Ok let me start with the definitions of incomplete dominance and codominance. incomplete dominance - The situation in which the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Is there any way to make pymol find the closest distance between RESIDUES? [on hold]

This seems like an obvious utility, but I can only make it find the closest distance between ATOMS, which makes a big mess on the screen. Edit: To be clear, I want to find the closest distance ...
-4
votes
1answer
33 views

Are there any similarities in the DNA of a humans and animals? [on hold]

As the title says, i've been wondering if there are any similarities between the DNA of humans and the DNA of animals? Like, maybe monkeys are more similiar in their DNA to humans, than dogs are (to ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

At what stage of embryonic development are allergies determined [on hold]

Hope my question makes sense. I'm an expectant father (for the 3rd time), my wife is 3 months pregnant and for the first time in her life she is suffering from weird lumpy rashes that appear ...
1
vote
1answer
7 views

What is the difference between tonic and phasic firing?

I am reading about dopamine, and I have realized that dopaminergic neurons can fire phasically or tonically. What is the difference between these two modes of firing?
0
votes
0answers
33 views

SDS PAGE GEL electrophoresis [on hold]

I am here attaching my running Gel image. Why during running it showing blue shading at upper line of bromo phenol blue line? This is 20% Acrylamide GEL concentration.
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Why do Sorghum Bicolor leaves roll up?

In A level Bio today we talked about abcesic acid as a stress hormone, and its ability to reduce osmotic potential around guard cells to close stomata. My question is, is abscesic acid in sorghum ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Will the usage of Exo-Skeleton Gear actually weaken the human body over time? [on hold]

The human body as we know, changes to accommodate environment specific factors in order to ensure survival, for instance we all know people who live at high altitudes where the air is thinner ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Ear size and intelligence

In India, particularly in South India there is a belief (may be superstitious) if a person has wide and large outer ear then he must be intelligent and from this belief I have seen some of my teachers ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Phenotype choice for one of a MZ twin pair in a genetic association study

I was having a discussion with a colleague and this question came up... It is commonplace in molecular genetics studies to only genotype one of a pair of monozygotic twins (and then implicitly impute ...
5
votes
4answers
171 views

Has it been enough time for evolution through simple natural selection?

Let first state that I understand natural selection. I am not asking if evolution happened. I see evolution as a fact, but I do not assume the current theory of natural selection as fact. I wonder if ...
3
votes
2answers
56 views

How do gory images lead to nausea?

How do gory images lead to nausea? Yesterday my friend visited shock sites (a website). He said that he got nauseous sensation within seconds after viewing the gory images. However, I don't ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

About artificially induced processes that would normally cause a cell to self-destruct

Are there certain biochemical processes that would normally cause a cell to self-destruct but if the cell being tested has apoptosis mechanisms that have malfunctioned or been 'turned off' the cell ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Why merkel cells are innervated by axon and not by dendrite end?

so here's the two pics that i have taken from google images and it really helped me with my question and my question is we all know that the afferent neurons receive senses for CNS which it had to be ...
1
vote
2answers
10k views

What is it called when one human eye is seeing brighter color than the other?

What is the name of a phenomenon where one of the human eyes is seeing brighter/more saturated color than the other? I can observe the same object from the same position while alternating which eye is ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

where does feelings come from? [on hold]

If we don't have feelings society claims as heartless person, but actually where does our feelings comes from:heart or brain ? If heart, then my question is heart pumps the blood throughout the body, ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Does transplanted heart have full sympaticus without medication?

I am reading this and this where I am considering this sentence [N]o baseline parasympathetic innervation [in transplanted heart]. Does this sentence imply that ...
2
votes
1answer
14 views

PCR processes number of amplicons produced [on hold]

Beginning with 600 template DNA molecules after 25 cycles of PCR how many amplicons will be produced?
-1
votes
0answers
30 views

Human Cloning: PhD Program? MD Program? [on hold]

If my long term, lifetime career goal is to participate in human cloning, is there a PhD program that I could apply to that would facilitate this goal? Cell & Molecular Biology? Would one of the ...
-2
votes
1answer
20 views

Bigger animals needs bigger amount of oxygen?

Bigger animals, like Elephants, or Dinosaurs for example, are in need for more oxygen than the amount of oxygen that small animals need? (humans, dogs, cats, etc) Thanks in advance.
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Is Norepinephrine beta2 adrenomimetic?

I know that it has alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 effects. It has beta2 receptor where epinephrine can effect. However, to say that it is beta adrenomimetic, I am not sure. That is ligand binding beta2 ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

Salbutamol's Pathways of Interaction and Classification

Salbutamol is a very commonly used direct-acting β2-agonist. This suggests me that it is sympatholytic. However, it has sympathomimetic pathways, see PubChem for Sympathomimetic. I am trying to ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

How can oxygen production during photosynthesis be measured? [duplicate]

I'm curious how people measure quantitatively photosynthetic rate in labs. I've seen many qualitative examples with direct observations of bubbles forming in water due to photosynthetic output of ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Where can I find a working Kauffman NK model script?

I'm doing some research on evolutionary trajectories, and I would like to be able to try simulating some epistatic models. However, all of the NK model scripts I have tried fail to compile or ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

What are possible reasons for a DNA template not giving amplification?

I am trying to amplify ~10kb length fragments using NEB LongAmp Master Mix. I had been using one particular aliquot of DNA (template amount in each PCR reaction of 10ul being around 60ng) and getting ...

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