0
votes
0answers
2 views

Primer design for HLA locus

i have designed primers for HLA locus DPA1(exon 2 region) based on Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design guidelines. primer will start from intron regions to cover full exonic region. ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

What are protein-based vitamins?

I am currently doing a research project on vitamin enhanced crops. It says that in DNA tampering, the only thing you can add to an organism is protein. So I am now looking for a vitamin/nutritious ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Does mitosis only create somatic cells? Doesn't it also create germ cells?

If mitosis doesn't create germ cells, then where do the germ cells that undergo meiosis come from?
1
vote
2answers
14 views

What is the basic structure of he nuclear lamina

What gives the nucleus its shape is a mesh of intermediate filaments called the nuclear lamina. It forms an interface between the chromosomes and the inside of the nuclear envelope. If these ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

How would i describe a Cladogram as paragraph?

I have this paragraph that i have halfway finished, but i do not know what to put in the spaces. A Cladogram is a branching diagram that represents the proposed phylogeny or evolution of a species ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

How we share pain?

When somebody else tells me about his or her itching or pain in some specific body part I sometimes begin to feel similar feelings. I can think of about three explanations: I feel pain all over my ...
4
votes
1answer
134 views

Why AZT is selective towards HIV and doesn't impair human DNA replication?

I've found this article, which is a very old one (from the time when nucleoside analogs where researched as a possible way to prevent replication of virus genetic material, before the HIV epidemics). ...
3
votes
1answer
24 views

Do cell membranes have more phospholipids in one layer than in the other?

Assuming the cell membrane to have a spherical shape, geometry tells us that the area of the inner leaflet is smaller than the area of the outer due to the difference in radius between them. Does this ...
2
votes
1answer
8 views

Are the proteolytic enzymes in syconiums and nettles identical to those in rennet?

I would like to compare rennet capability under various conditions. The issue is, I don't want to use calf rennet, but I can't figure out if nettle and syconium, which also coagulate milk, contain ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Standard solution for alkaloid separation in HPLC [on hold]

In the middle of my college project, I am in need of performing alkaloids separation from Aloe-vera using HPLC. Can anyone help me by mentioning the standard solution to be used for this separation?
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Show the relationship between genes when we have a proof crossing and types are given [on hold]

At the tomato A- round fruit, a- long fruit, B- smooth fruit, b- creasy fruit. In a proof crossing we have these types: 24 individuals Ab, 266 AB, 246 aB, 24 ab. Show the relationship between genes. ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Why sigmoid curves appear in quantitative analysis of many biological phenomena? [on hold]

I know two examples: 1-The binding of hemoglobin to oxygen (binding of oxygen to one site of hemoglobin induces conformational changes which increase the affinity of the other sites for oxygen - the ...
-2
votes
0answers
21 views

I am a biology student and m confused about my future after intermediate now m seeking a profession beyond medical line [on hold]

I want to know all the career options associated with biologystudent except medical professions ......Plz provide the best options...... Scope Benefits Demand Earning
-3
votes
1answer
39 views

Why do humans need a heart? [on hold]

When I looked up the function of the heart, it says the heart pumps blood throughout the body. But the blood is already throughout the body, as it is recycled back to the heart. It is a chick-egg ...
1
vote
4answers
46 views

Why are there both stop and start codons?

Based on my understanding from wikipedia, there is the (RNA) start codon AUG and the stop codons UAA, UGA, UAG. AUG can also encode Methionine, I'm assuming if it appears in the middle of a mRNA ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Black is dominant to white color. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white. How did you do the ordering. Well I found ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

interpreting enhancer and promoter regions of a target gene

I am reading a paper which talks about promoter/enhancer regions of certain protein coding genes. These genes are for which evidence points to having strong MEF2 transcription factor binding sites. ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

is Acinetobacter spp produce biofilm [on hold]

Is Acinetobacter spp. produce biofilm ? And what the basic properties of this bacteria like biochemical test?And some literature about Acinetobacter.
1
vote
0answers
23 views

how food moves in horizontal coils of small intestines [duplicate]

This is a very very basic question, and I am looking at it more from point of view of physics. The small intestine is a highly coiled structure, which means it has horizontal coils as well. I can ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

Plants and animals ability to survive polypoidy conditions [duplicate]

In mammals the condition polyploidy produce something euphemistically termed "general developmental disruption" ,practically speaking this means system meltdown which happens very quickly. There is ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Protein-Bound Drugs in Kwashiorkor

Kwashiorkor is characterised by decreased serum protein (including serum albumin) due to poor dietary protein intake. What is the effect of this lowered serum protein on highly-protein-bound drugs? ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Variables of an Experiment? [on hold]

So the experiment that i did was using a dialysis tubing as a model cell to test the process of osmosis. The IV is the amount of sucrose concentration put into the dialysis tubing. The tubing is then ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

if the load is removed from an eccentrically contracting muscle, will it start contracting concentrically?

Geometrically speaking, a muscle contraction should exert a force between the two attachment sites. However, the actual effect of the force on the overall geometry of the body near the point of ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model [on hold]

I'm trying to run a multivariate generalized linear mixed model on a data set. I have 4 response variables, 3 fixed factors, a covariate and a random factor. SPSS can't do the analysis. I've tried ...
13
votes
3answers
673 views

Are there cats with black skin?

Some mammals can have a black, pink or spotted skin, depending on race - see for example humans or pigs. But I recently learned that this is not the case with mice. Even black furred mice have pink ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

How are 23 chromosomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
2
votes
2answers
24 views

Biochemical coupling between two enzymatic reactions - Enzymes physically associated?

I am wondering what the exact definition of biochemical coupling between two enzymatic reactions is. I know that these two enzymatic reactions have to share the same intermediate(s) one is ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

How can TMS induce enough depolarization to cause an action potential?

Creating an action potential needs at least tens of mV potential difference across the membrane to occur. But the membrane is really thin, surely less then 0.01µm (some reference give 25A). Then the ...
4
votes
1answer
43 views

What (open) software there are for simulating behaviour of human (cortical) neurons?

Is there any reliable open-source software for simulating the behaviour of human cortical neurons? I am looking for serious software, so let's assume I have access to a computer with more than 10,000 ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

How do I use BEAST for divergence time estimation in this case?

I am interested in using BEAST to find the divergence time estimates of species separations within a genus of frogs. The genus separated from a outgroup taxon I have chosen around 80 million years ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Survival of streptococcus after my scarlet fever

I'm currently sick because of scarlet fever but I got treated with antibiotics. I know that after 1.5 day using antibiotics the streptococci I release at home are dangerous anymore. But my question ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

What is the chemical makeup of mealworm frass?

We have been raising mealworms for some time and while mealworm frass has proven very useful as a plant fertilizer, I started wondering about other potential uses of this leftover waste. Can someone ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What are the forms of host pathogen interaction [on hold]

What are the forms of host pathogen interaction apart from the host pathogen protein protein interaction?? Or is protein protein interface is the only one way of host pathogen interaction?? I am ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

White/Gold vs Blue/Black dress [on hold]

So I'm sure you've all seen the dress photo where people see the dress as either White and Gold or Blue and Black. It has essentially 'split' the internet because some people see the dress and they ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

What is the role of Aspartate Transaminase in gluconeogenesis?

I know that oxaloacetate cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane, but can instead be converted to aspartate, shuttled out, and then re-converted back to oxaloacetate. What does this have to do with ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Common properties of herbs in creating anaphrodisiac effect?

Recently came across Wiki article about anaphrodisiac herbs and other products. An anaphrodisiac (also antaphrodisiac or antiaphrodisiac) is something that quells or blunts the libido. It is the ...
3
votes
0answers
11 views

Procedure for doing western blot [on hold]

I am writing a step by step guide for doing a western blot for a class. It is intended for any one with basic Biology lab skills. I am hoping people will review my draft and give feedback on how to ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

What are pseudoknots?

I'm trying to get my head around what a pseudoknot is and how I can identify them given some RNA string. For example, suppose I have a string s = CGUUGUGUACACGAUAGUACAU. Suppose the two longest ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How to get chemical structures in PDB format?

I am about to embark on the final step of a research project that involves molecular docking. Specifically, I am planning on docking an alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid glycan to the influenza ...
7
votes
1answer
226 views

Are bacteria necessary for an individual's life, or, how long could a person live without bacteria? [on hold]

Bacteria are essential to life in that they are responsible for breakdown of organic substances, etc. but are bacteria necessary for an individual's life? In other words, how long would a human ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

What is the role pyruvate carboxylase in lipogenesis?

I just know that Acetyl-CoA is a positive allosteric modulator for pyruvate carboxylase, but I cannot find anything else.
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

Case study about diabetic woman with comminuted fracture [on hold]

A middle aged diabetic woman is taken to ED after a MVA (motor vehicle accident). She has a compound fracture of her tibia. Imaging shows a comminuted fracture. In respect to this patient describe the ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

How do genetic chimeras with different blood types not die?

If a person is a chimera and has two different blood types in his veins, how does he not die? Shouldn't the immune system attack one of the blood types? In 1953 a human chimera was reported in the ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Detailed mechanism of the cause of diabetes mellitus type 1?

I have read in some texts that diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by degeneration of beta cells due to our body's own immune reaction.Is it true? Can you explain further how are such types of immune ...
3
votes
1answer
19 views

To which negatively charged components of the cell envelopes do the crystal violet complexes bind in gram staining?

The gram positive have negative components in the peptidoglycan layer in the form of teichoic acid phosphodiester bonds, and the gram negative have negative components in their outer membrane in the ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

The human organism knows what we have to eat? [on hold]

My mother has told that if your organism needs a vitamin, you want fruits include that vitamin. For example you have lack of C-vitamin you would like to eat lemon. Is there any explanation for it, or ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Why are twins so similar? [on hold]

It strikes me that it could be the same conditions of the fetuses in uterus or the same conditions of the sperms, but I am really not sure in this way. Thanks.
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Strange Cordeyceps-looking Mushroom in Australia

In the past few weeks, after the rain started up I noticed these mushrooms around my local area. I'd never seen them previously out of the 20 years I've lived here (a town in Queensland, Australia). ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Does all fungi has has N-Acetyl Glucosamine (Chitin) as the main component of their cell wall?

I came across a question which somewhat goes like In which of the following kingdom, MOST of the members have a cell wall made of polysaccharide and amino acids ? - Monera or Fungi. To me it looks ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

why plants cannot use atmospheric nitrogen? [duplicate]

Earth's atmosphere constitutes 78% of Nitrogen, then why do plants need to absorb Nitrogen from the soil. Why couldn't it possible for them to absorb the atmospheric Nitrogen like they do in the case ...

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