-1
votes
0answers
4 views

Proportion of Mass?

As part of resubmission of another question, I'm describing the proportions of material that a creature is made of. A delibratly simple, invented example could be: 20% bone, 75% liquids, and 5% ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Could a prolonged amount of Antibiotics severely affect the digestion Gut Microbiota?

Could taking antibiotics for a prolonged amount of time severely harm or even worse kill off a large proportion of Gut Microbiota responsible entirely for digestion, Resulting in lifelong digestion ...
1
vote
1answer
12 views

A limit to birds affinity for high vantage points

Birds seem to have a natural affinity for high vantage points, including power wires, the tops of trees, and the sides and tops of buildings. However I presume the top of the Burj Khalifa is not ...
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

Respiratory System

How do chemoreceptor cells regulate respiration? Check all that apply a.Chemoreceptors are found in the aorta. b.Chemoreceptors are found in the brainstem. c.Chemoreceptors are found in the carotid ...
-1
votes
0answers
5 views

how to find no of annotations of a specific chromosome (say chr10 that is in the chromosome's column)in a tab delimited file in linux

for example my first line of the file when i filter the data using grep is as below. there are multiple entries of chr10 in the third column . How do i count the number of annotations of chromosome 10 ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Capture recapture for only two visit assuming a open population model

I have a study system where I’m doing a capture recapture analysis. I mark fish in one year and I’m recapturing a subset of them the next year. I only have 2 capture events. Since a lot of time, ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Does zika virus stay in your body when cured?

Can a virus stay in your body (after you've been cured) in a concentration that is sufficient to infect someone? I am asking this primaly because of zika virus. Zika virus is as far as I know ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Solving a Pedigree Between Heterozygous Half-Cousins

My calculation was 1/2 (for II-2 as he must be carrier) * 1/2 (for II-3) * 1/2 (for III-2) * 1/4 = 1/32. Please help me out by proper explanation to your steps and point out my mistakes. The correct ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How to solve the problem of 2 melt peaks in real time PCR?

I am facing a problem in my real time experiment. After standardizing the annealing temperature by semi-quantitative PCR, I did real time for my gene of interest. In one of my samples, I got 2 peaks ...
-1
votes
0answers
32 views

Question of CSIR-NET exam [on hold]

A living cell has a protoplasm which is water based and demarcated by a lipid bilayer membrane. If a cell is pierced to 1/5th of its diameter with a very sharp needle, after taking the needle out (a) ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Conjoined twins formation theory

is it theoretically possible to take two fertilized mammalian eggs and push them together to make conjoined twins? How about forming non-identical conjoined twins?
1
vote
1answer
16 views

What kind of changes “stays” in the neuron after the nervous impulse happened?

I often see in neuroscience textbooks about how the brain controls everything in the body with different tracts and etc, and it seems that information is always being transmitted, like there's no ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs inhibit these enzymes?

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
6
votes
2answers
169 views

Sugar as a defence against bacteria?

An answer on another SE site mentions that sugar "at a certain level acts as a preservative". I've always been taught that microorganisms eat sugar and expel acids, that is why sugary food are ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views
+50

Synaptic pruning and selective elimination during adolescence

How does Synaptic pruning occur during pre-adolescence, adolescence and post-adolescence, after there is blooming overproduction of synaptic connections until the years of late childhood, and how does ...
4
votes
3answers
77 views

Why do bacteria die in a high sugar content environment?

I was reading some questions in the test bank. Then in Chapter 27, I wonder why the answer is A. (undergo death by plasmolysis). Is the high concentration of sugar that kills them or the effects of ...
7
votes
1answer
42 views

Why do we blink instead of winking each eye independently?

Question Why do we blink both eyes at the same time rather than winking each eye as needed? Why would winking independently be better? The benefit would be a minor improvement whereby a person ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

How does the immune system “learn” from a vaccine?

According to Wikipedia: A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Confusion about photosynthesis VS respiration

Is it true to say that the electron transport chain in photosynthesis and respiration is slightly different, regarding to the direction of H+ pumping and flowing back in through ATP synthase? ...
4
votes
4answers
8k views

Is it possible for a child to grow taller than their tallest parent?

I have heard that offspring can't grow taller than either of their parents but I've also heard that sometimes some gene activation can skip generations. Is it possible for a child to grow taller than ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

How do small birds survival in winter?

I live in a region with rather cold winters (like -40 C), and was always wondering how small birds can survive in such temperatures. For example, there are sparrows, ravens, crows, pigeons, sometimes ...
6
votes
1answer
39 views

Why do crows sit on treetops even when it is cold?

It is cold outside: -1 degrees Celsius, wind 14 km/h and snow from time to time. I was wondering why crows (maybe birds in general in Northern Europe) are calmly sitting in relatively windy places ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Is it possible to make the human cells totipotent? [on hold]

we all know humans are not capable of regenerating from a single cell. Is there any possibility that we can make cells totipotent?
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Does a specific blood group enhance the Plasmodium growth?

I am maintaining Plasmodium falciparum cultures for past 6 months. For the blood culture, usually we lab members take turns and donate blood for the culture. I observed that the parasite's normal ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Whales and cancer [duplicate]

Do whales get less cancer than they should considering they have a lot more cells and tissue? If a lot of cancer formation is random because of mutations then shouldn't whales receive a lot of ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Do animals demonstrate target practice (i.e., playful accuracy behavior)?

Do animals demonstrate any sort of accuracy-motivated play? (please provide examples!) Consider most human sports and related hobbies. Most share the common goal of hitting a target or being ...
-2
votes
1answer
64 views

Why do simplier plants live in water?

Lower plants such like algae are considered to be simplier organisms, than those plants that live in water. Why had'nt they evolved as much as the land kind?
23
votes
5answers
2k views

Why are there species instead of a continuum of various animals?

As I understand it, various animal traits have to evolve gradually, but what happens to the species that are "neither here nor there"? To put it differently, if a species evolved from another, it did ...
5
votes
1answer
62 views

Evolution of dominance of alleles

Can someone tell me where can I find detailed text about mechanisms of evolution of dominance? Or, if it is possible, I would be grateful if someone will tell me about them here.
1
vote
2answers
46 views

How to obtain a tardigrade?

The tardigrade is often mentioned as one of the most "alien" lifeforms on Earth. This video speaks for itself: (from this article) I have long wanted to see a tardigrade with my own eyes. I have a ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Tardigrade genetic acceptance and experimentation?

Does this property of tardigrades, that when under extreme conditions they are more permeable and more easily accept sections of genes developed in other species, as I understand sometimes transfered ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How many Watson-Crick + Hoogsteen triple base pair combinations are there?

Are these triple base pairs the only Watson-Crick + Hoogsteen triple base pairs possible? Furthermore, are TAA and TAT mixed up? This image is from Wikipedia, so it's possible that it's erroneous.
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Can tardigrades survive being eaten?

Compared to a tardigrade, the cockroach seems fragile. But can tardigrades survive the acidic environment of being eaten by most animals?
10
votes
2answers
844 views

Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

Pain: What are the neurological processes responsible for pain? [on hold]

In the context of human beings, what is processes that cause the sensation of pain? "Pain" refers the sensation of injuries, and in addition, the sensation that can be vaguely considered "the ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

What does characterization mean in a genomics context?

"The resulting libraries of gene sequences allow CDC and other laboratories to compare the genes of currently circulating influenza viruses with the genes of older influenza viruses and viruses ...
5
votes
1answer
122 views

The replicator equation vs the Lotka-Volterra equation

Background The replicator equation with $n$ strategies is given by the differential equation: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{ij}x_{j} - \phi \right) \qquad i = 1, ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Transgenic Plant-Gene source for introduction into host organism

Let's say the plant-gene itself is known, i.e. the exact neucleotide sequence is available in a gene bank (originally sequenced from a tree sample extracted RNA). Previous work has already successfuly ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

conjoined twins mirror image explanation

why are conjoined twins sometimes symmetrical, like organs such as liver, stomach and heart are mirror image of each other? Can you give me a hypothesis that could somehow involve primitive streaks? ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

Does the bending of a tree's trunk in the wind stimulate and strengthen root growth?

Recently Southern California experienced extreme wind velocities and afterwards the news reported over 300 trees had fallen in San Diego County. I had either heard or read somewhere that the action of ...
-1
votes
1answer
26 views

new DNA sequencing technologies? [on hold]

Last year I did my thesis in the field of a new method for DNA analysis. Which I think is very interesting although I cannot seem to find any new methods in this field. Do you maybe know a new ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Model for Oxygen diffusion into tissue?

Currently I have an idea and want to research it's feasibility. I want to know how oxygen or any other particle could diffuse into the body through small holes in the skin. is it possible to ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Is there a good analogy that illustrates the difference between early DNA sequencing techniques and shotgun sequencing?

My first university biology classes begin in September. In preparation, but increasingly out of curiosity, I've been studying some basic biology. Saying that to say, I know as much about DNA ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Is bee cognition affected by neonicotinoids other than only just navigation?

It is conclusive that navigation by bees while locating food sources is affected by their exposure to neonicotinoids. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0091364 But if ...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

Is there a way to know how many sodium channels are active (conducting) at a given time in the brain?

I was doing some reading about anti-epileptic sodium channel blockers, then wondered how many sodium channels are actually conducting (actively passing ions) at any given time, that is, in an ...
1
vote
1answer
94 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
-4
votes
1answer
32 views

What are some extreme side effects of the MMR vaccine?

Just wondering what the side effects MMR vaccines can cause and some of the biological pathways it affects. For example can they cause brain damage?
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Why is it advised to avoid bubble formation during mixing?

I have been told not to vortex solution containing protein. The reason I was given is bubble formation. Here I am interested in the effect of bubble formation in general.
14
votes
4answers
2k views

Where is the line between Anaerobic and Aerobic?

I am well aware of traditional anaerobic respiration (lactic acid or alcohol produced - no Krebs cycle) and traditional aerobic respiration (O2 is used at the end of the Citric acid cycle). I am ...

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