0
votes
1answer
20 views

(How) can a pink grasshopper exist?

I saw this foto on Reddit recently: Is this possible? How can a grasshopper become like this? Is this just natural genetic mutation?
5
votes
0answers
51 views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

How to calculate dosage between oral and scalp-transdermal application?

This is a tricky one. I will give the actual situation, hopefully this will clarify the question. I require medication of the particular small molecule drug (ibuprofen) to my brain over a sustained ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Do alternative start codons code for methionine after transcription?

There is some literature which shows that all start codons code for methionine. However, in the standard genetic code, the alternative start codons clearly code for leucine. Does that mean these ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

Sansevieria species specification needed

What are the botanical differences between the species S. parva and S. senegambica? Please highlight the main ones. I have 2 groups of plants. One with label "Sansevieria dooneri" (a synonym of S. ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How is a tanglegram calculated?

In this question, it was asked what are some good softwares for calculating tanglegrams. What is a tanglegram? How is it calculated? It looks like some kind of double-dendrogram. Do I get a Nature ...
30
votes
10answers
5k views

Can humans survive without consuming life?

Some people say that it's awful that humans eat animals. They feel that it's barbaric, because you're killing life and then on top of that, you're eating it, and that you should eat vegetation ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How to stop or slow down the process of growth of hairs?

Is it possible to slow down or stop hair growth? If yes, then how is it achieved?
0
votes
2answers
52 views

What is the reproductitive advantage of grey-haired humans

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. AFAIK this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have noticeable ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

What is the ratio of breathing rate to heart rate?

Breathing rate and heart rate are directly connected. This is because the heart is connected to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. I first thought that breathing rate would be half of the heart rate ...
6
votes
1answer
30 views

Alfred Jost's rabbit experiment: how did he actually do it?

I was watching a Crash Course on Biology YouTube video by Hank Green: Great Glands - Your Endocrine System. Hank humorously describes a sex determination experiment by Alfred Jost as follows ...
1
vote
2answers
23 views

Why isn't Bubonic Plague as virulent as it once was?

Although I am admittedly not anywhere near an expert on any topic, I still have a hard time understanding how Black Death and Bubonic plague are one in the same. Since plague still exists, with news ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

What are the atmospheric requirements for large dinosaurs?

What are the atmospheric requirements for large dinosaurs? and are the atmospheric constituents for supporting large dinosaurs any different from the atmosphere today?
3
votes
1answer
18 views

Is the water transpired by plants pure H₂O, or does it contain trace minerals?

I'm considering the idea of drinking water that I trap from what is transpired by trees. Interestingly, is this water a fairly (or maybe even extraordinarily) pure form of H₂O, a remarkably pure ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

What triggers the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone with the onset of puberty?

I am interested to know the process of development of puberty. During puberty, when boys/girls reache 12-14 (puberty) years of their age, their hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

multiple HIV infection in same T cell

I was wondering can multiple HIV virus infecting same T cell ? Coz in flu virus they have SA to cleave of those sialic acid residue preventing re-infection of the same cell by other viruses to ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

How to estimate the DNA density in human sperm head?

I have got an estimate of sperm head volume from internet.Like consider it as a disk of order 4$\mu$m to 5$\mu$m. Now I wanted to find the DNA density in the sperm head. How to find that?
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Regarding the difference between cDNA library and RNA sequencing (Biochem. technique)

I was wondering why establishment of cDNA library required the step of reverse transcription (i.e. turning the sequence into DNA) why not directly using the extracted RNA for sequencing and converting ...
5
votes
1answer
64 views

Why does ant queen keep the eggs out of her hive?

I have captured an ant queen and now I'm trying to create an artificial ant nest. I have noticed that though she has dug a hole to hide in, she keeps the eggs out of it unless she feels that they ...
4
votes
0answers
27 views

When did CRISPR/Cas9 evolve and what is the likelihood that a superior system for live cell genome editing has already evolved on earth since then?

I've read that CRISPR/Cas9 is currently being implemented and tested for its ability to edit genomes in live cells (Summer '14), and that it is supplanting other genome editing tools in the lab, such ...
4
votes
3answers
65 views

Does anyone know a good software for producing tanglegrams?

I'm trying to look at relationships between parasite and host phylogenetic trees. I have done a bit of searching for a software in which to do this with, and I have tried using Dendroscope and ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Do the phage repressors CI and Mnt exhibit crosstalk?

I am interested in using the CI and Mnt proteins as well as their respective promoters (pR and Pmnt) within the same synthetic system, but am concerned as to their similarity and potential crosstalk. ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

How do Type I restriction enzymes work?

According to NCBI, type I REases have a specific target sequence but randomly make cuts at sites far from the target sequence. How does the restriction enzyme travel from the target sequence to the ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

What are the effects of sleep deprivation?

Having recently pulled an "all-nighter" while trying to fix a fatal bug in our release code, I started thinking of any health risks that I might have. What are the adverse effects of staying up for ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Does a woman's G-spot actually exist? [on hold]

Does a woman's G-spot actually exist? Are there any research studies? Links: G-spot (Gräfenberg spot) at Wikipedia U.S. gynaecologist says he has found the G-spot
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Why do pine stands exist?

I live in the midwestern United States. I cycle to work, sometimes on heavily wooded roads, and I can't help but notice that in most places within the surrounding deciduous forests Pine and evergreen ...
2
votes
1answer
166 views

Why does caffeine consumption cause one to urinate more?

What is the physiological mechanism behind the diuretic effect of caffeine?
3
votes
3answers
36 views

sex limited genome transmission

In general, for dioecious species, a large portion of the genome passed from parents to offspring of both sexes - in mammals the X-chromosomes and autosomes are passed from a mother to both daughters ...
4
votes
3answers
71 views

Membrane potential after exposure to glutamate

Neurons were kept in a physiological solution. During the resting phase, the membrane potential in the axoplasm of neurons was negative compared to the extracellular space and a potential ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Homologues chromosomes [on hold]

At the end of meiosis 1, can the chromosomes within a cell formed behave as homologues? If yes, then what can be consequences; if no, why?
0
votes
1answer
7k views

What is it called when one human eye is seeing brighter color than the other?

What is the name of a phenomenon where one of the human eyes is seeing brighter/more saturated color than the other? I can observe the same object from the same position while alternating which eye is ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Pollinator mating system in orchids

I came across three terms in an article on pseudocopulation. However I don't quite understand what it means. They are: 1) solitary and haplodiploid 2) social and haplodiploid 3) diploid These ...
5
votes
1answer
21 views

Is oxidative phosphorylation less efficient in gram positive bacteria?

Gram negative bacteria perform oxidative phosphorylation in their periplasmic regions, between the inner and outer membrane where a proton gradient is maintained and used by the ATP synthase to make ...
4
votes
1answer
207 views

What is this beetle?

During a pit stop on the road from North Carolina to New York (somewhere in Delaware) I found the following (dead) insect in the car park: As you can see from the quarter next to it (25 mm ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

What is a protective epitope?

What is a protective epitope? An epitope is basically a part of antigen. So does it mean that when the epitope combines with an antibody, it helps in the functioning of the antibody instead of going ...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

What is the name of this big plant with a purple trunk and green to purple berries? [duplicate]

I have photographed the following plant in our garden in Pittsburgh, PA. Do you know the name of the plant?
5
votes
2answers
67 views
3
votes
0answers
15 views

Null distribution of Blomberg's K

I've noticed different functions in different R libraries have different ways of assessing significance for Blomberg's K. For instance, picante's phylosignal looks at a distribution of PIC variance ...
4
votes
2answers
40 views

What is the mechanism of oxygen uptake in E. coli?

How does E. coli uptake oxygen? Most of the literature I found is concerned with response to oxygen level supplied in the medium, as opposed to how much is actually transported inside. Can they shut ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Is severe but short-term pain worse than moderate but prolonged pain for the body?

I'm wondering about the effects of different durations and intensities of pain on the body. So the two can be compared, let's say that the cause of pain is the same in both cases, but in one the ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What are the minimal chemical requirements for a food which we all can eat? [closed]

I've been puzzled by the following though experiment for the past few days: I want to make my own food from scratch, but I do not know where to start from. I want to be 100% sure that what I eat will ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

What does the term 'epitope mapping' mean? [on hold]

Epitope mapping means identifying the binding site of antibodies on the target antigen. This means that the site to be identified is part of the antigen and not antibody, am I right?
2
votes
0answers
22 views

How can oxygen production during photosynthesis be measured?

I'm curious how people measure quantitatively photosynthetic rate in labs. I've seen many qualitative examples with direct observations of bubbles forming in water due to photosynthetic output of ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Why do humans have only one liver? [on hold]

Humans have two lungs, two kidneys... But only one liver. If the liver is vital to our survival, why do humans only have one?
4
votes
0answers
65 views

Effective population size and overlapping generations

From this book: If generations overlap, then the effective population size $N_e$ does not equal the population size $N$. I know mathematical formulations in order to find the effective population ...
4
votes
0answers
36 views

Linkage disequilibrium with $n_l$ loci $n_a$ alleles

Linkage disequilibrium $\left(D\right)$ for two bi-allelic loci is defined as: $$D=X_{11}X_{22} - X_{12}X_{21}$$ , where $X_{11}$, $X_{12}$, $X_{21}$, X$_{22}$ are the frequencies of the haplotypes ...
4
votes
1answer
41 views

X-inactivation in ovaries

Background In all eutherian (mammals excluding the marsupials), the female (who is $XX$ for the pair of sexual chromosomes) inactivates one of her $X$. This is called dosage compensation. This ...
7
votes
1answer
95 views

What are the costs associated with carrying lots of genetic material

What are the costs (if any) associated with carrying lots of genetic material? energy for copying? raw material for copying? space in the cell? Maintenance cost (matter and energy)? time to copy is ...
2
votes
2answers
30 views

Where I can find information about the study of animal vision?

I read a lot of articles on the internet about how dog see the the world. But I can't find the source of these study. I want to know how did scientist setup the experiment to find out animal vision. I ...

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