1
vote
1answer
9 views

What is meant by single molecule sequencing

When sequencing papers refer to single molecule sequencing, what is there definition of a "molecule". Are they saying base by base? The entire dna chain in a chromosome can also be though of as a ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

How were the first primers made

I keep reading about how primers are useful in pcr -- they allow you to select a specific dna region. Similarly, in NGS or Sanger sequencing they give you a starting point. The primers I see are about ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How does regurgitated food go to the 3rd stomach chamber instead of going to the 1st?

Ruminants are known for their regurgitation of food; the food goes through the 1st and 2nd stomach chambers, then returns to the oral cavity in cuds. The cuds then come back into the stomach, but this ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

When does exposure to an allergen increase / decrease allergy?

In immunotherapy a person is regularly exposed to an allergen to decrease the allergy. Yet apparently "repeated intranasal challenges ... induces robust allergic airway inflammation, " [0] So when ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Planar circular DNA and protein

I am trying to develop a planar (two dimensional) lattice based framework to simulate ring (circular) DNA and proteins. To verify my model, I need to simulate real DNA and proteins. The base idea for ...
-1
votes
0answers
12 views

Any allergic drugs affecting heart sympathetic function?

Many people during allergic times feel tiredness. Particularly, people with low physical activity - lowered vagal stimulation, and with allergies (hypersensitivity type I) - increased sympathetical ...
0
votes
4answers
175 views

Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being [on hold]

Just like the title says: Strictly from a biological perspective, what is the functional expectation of a human being. No religious or philosophy-based answers will be accepted, we are talking ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Algorithms to find biopolymers with similar 3D structure. Reference needed

I want some references/guide to start studying algorithms which are used to find biopolymers with similar 3D structure i.e. proteins specially in high throughput conditions. I know Chinese have done ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones?

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones? Is it hypothalamus?
4
votes
1answer
461 views

Identical twins' genders

Can identical twins have different genders (as in biological sex)? I thought they should have absolutely the same genes. If they can, what caused it? I'd assume it MAY be because of errors in ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Effect of natural selection on the phenotypic variance. Empirical studies

Short background Theoretically speaking, natural selection causes a decrease in genetic variance and because the environmental variance should remain unchanged, natural selection causes a decrease of ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Effect of axillary stretching on prevention of congestion from hyperemia

In exercising not-opposing muscles of arms (biceps, not triceps), hyperemia of tissues occurs i.e. active process in arteries. I feel personally sour muscles many days afterwards if I do not stretch ...
1
vote
0answers
6 views

Unresolved polytomic Phylogenetic Tree in MrBayes

I ran MrBayes for 1000000 mcmc generations and the phylogenetic tree which i obtained showed polytomy and was not resolved. Any suggestions as to how to correct it?
0
votes
0answers
16 views

What kind of small insect is this?

Found in central florida in the bath tub. Its about the size of a pencil marking, very small. What is it?
1
vote
2answers
40 views

Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
1
vote
2answers
19 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Effect of Aging on SA node's sympathetic fibers

I am trying to understand the effect of aging on the sympathetic fibers of SA node. I know that aging shifts the vagal curve to left in frequency due to aging. However, I am interested if aging has ...
3
votes
3answers
108 views

What does “kcal/mol” mean when speaking of enzyme catalysis?

After thinking about it, I'm confused by what the reaction barrier of an enzyme actually means. Imagine a reactor containing enzyme and substrate. If the enzyme in the reactor has a reaction barrier ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Detecting a Fasting State in the Body via Lasers

I was just wondering wether it would be possible to detect if the body is in a "fasting" state, via lasers attached to the body. If it is possible, what sort of laser would be needed?
1
vote
0answers
13 views

How do exon tandem exon duplications occur in the genome?

By this I mean in cases where tandem exons are introduced by replication slippage how would a DNA polymerase by chance duplicate an entire exon cleanly (i.e. from exact start to exact end) when it ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Heterozygosity and overdominance

Consider $m$ loci with heterozygote advantage (overdominance) such that the fitness of the two homozygotes is $1-\frac{s}{2}$ and the fitness of the heterozygotes is $1+\frac{s}{2}$, where $s>0$. ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Why haven't land animals evolved beyond urination?

It occurred to me (while urinating) that this would seem to be selected against because water is a scarce resource. Why are we constantly losing water we don't need to through urination? What is ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

How are new chromosomes replicated into the next generation via sexual reproduction?

If an individual has a new chromosome, which is very unlikely to happen, he will not have any luck in finding a sexual partner with this same trait. How will the offspring inherit this trait. And ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

List of np-hard problems in biology/bioinformatics

I'm not sure if this is the right place for this but... I am looking for a list of computationally "hard" problems such that if a problem from this list could be solved effectively, it would be ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Could someone Identify this Insect Hive on my Balcony Grill

A smallish insect hive has been forming on the grill of my balcony in the last month or two, and I wanted to know should I be worried or can I just let it be. Its 13th floor in Singapore, if the ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Cells and their characteristic properties

Could a culture of cells of a certain type be 'forced' to attain certain properties in successive generations that would have been harmful to the cell culture as they are now?
1
vote
1answer
28 views

In an open circulatory system, how is blood moved?

In the mollusks section, the powerpoint mentioned that gastropods and bivalves have an open circulatory system. According to the note, this means that the blood does not travel in vessels. How, then, ...
2
votes
2answers
40 views

How can CI repressor both activate and repress $P_{RM}$ promoter found in $\lambda$ phage?

I'm reading a paper where the authors constructed a toggle switch that uses bidirectional $P_R/P_{RM}$ promoter found in the $\lambda$ phage. There are 3 binding sites - $O_R1$, $O_R2$, $O_R3$ - ...
-2
votes
2answers
41 views

Punnett square and hybrid cross [on hold]

A plant breeder crossed two plants, one with red flowers, and the other with white flowers. Red is dominant. Calculate the phenotype and genotype ratios of the F2 generation of this cross. Is this a ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Are there naturally occurring Biological Pacemakers?

There are artificial biological pacemakers which express funny channels. I am thinking if it is possible to have also naturally occurring (only in recovery cases and in silent tissues) biological ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Mechanisms to start simultaneous depolarisation of two Pacemakers?

I am thinking the biochemical mechanisms of the simultaneous depolarisations of two pacemakers. My intuition Funny channels (but not alone) No autonomic nervous system (my conjencture) What are ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Percentage of understood human DNA

I want to know what's the approximate percentage of understood human DNA, as in, which part does what. I'm not asking for details, just the amount. Thank you.
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Effect of nerve pills and relationship to Shingles

Do nerve pills actually suppress the nervous system and how would that effect the Shingles virus which is known to activate under large amounts of stress?
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Speed of effective lymphatic drainage?

Lymphatic drainage occurs from many portions of the body: To venous angle: head axillary lymph nodes hands abdomen legs (I think legs' drainage goes through abdomen) The speed of the lymph ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

How is bacterial plasma membrane made?

Eukaryotes have ER which manufactures plasma membrane of cells. How is prokaryotic plasma membrane made ? What is the pathway and which enzymes are involved ?
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Derivative form of HRM results

I used in the laboratory the Rotor Gene 6000 for a real time PCR and HRM analysis. When i analyzed the results of melting step, the derivative plot in the y-axis used the dF/dT . On the other hand ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA?

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA? Can viral DNA undergo the process of methylation? If not then why does this process does not occur in viruses?
0
votes
0answers
6 views

What are things inside dorsal aorta in germ layers?

I am not sure if they are mesonephros. Mesonephros should be above dorsal aorta, not visible in this picture. What are those cells inside the red shaped circle?
3
votes
0answers
31 views

What is the main challenge in creating a chemical male contraceptive?

More than 50 years after hormonal contraception for women was invented, a contraceptive pill for males is still not available. With the obvious major biological differences in mind, why does it appear ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Regarding the relation of observed human nature with evolution and/or genetics [on hold]

Can the behavior/psychology of a human be genetic or is it an acquired trait?
1
vote
1answer
14 views

Why doesn't the avocado turn green when it is kept with its seed?

Why doesn't the avocado turn green when its kept with its seed? What does the seed release that slows down the oxidation process?
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Book recommendations for evolutionary models

I was recently working on getting a statistical model of a DNA sequence. To do this I found that understanding evolution quantitatively seems to be quite important. I would really appreciate any book ...
3
votes
2answers
51 views

Can I force evolution in a group of cells by removing all the smaller cells?

I actually have algae growing in water in a container. I was thinking if it was possible to filter the water so that all the small cells will be filtered out and only the bigger ones will remain to ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Average face shape

I am doing face detection application where every face detected is inside a rectangle. The rectangle always contains some background behind the face and now I need to extract as much of the face as ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Development of vitreous humor

I have tried reading about development of vitreous humor but it is all very confusing. When does it first developed ? Does it renew itself ? Please provide reliable sources..
0
votes
1answer
22 views

TCGA gene expression data are missing matched normal

I'm trying to use the TCGA data portal to get gene expression data for cancer tissues, but I'm not sure what "Tumor matched normal" means. It is unclear to me if the values are already compared to a ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Coalescent Theory - Probability for $k$ alleles that of one coalescence event occured $t+1$ generations ago

From this textbook Under the wright-Fisher model of genetic drift and under the assumption that all alleles are neutral, the probability that $k$ alleles had $k$ distinct parent alleles the previous ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

how to silicate a hyper plasia responce from my muscle tissue?

I know it's not a fitness forum but because it has biological background.I want to get big by increasing my muscle cell not by growing muscle (hypertrophy), I have not received a descent ...

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