0
votes
0answers
6 views

How do Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese?

I learned in my food microbiology class that Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese. However, I was wondering what type of mechanisms do these ...
1
vote
0answers
3 views

What's the duration between the binding of adrenaline to $\beta$-AR and the first translated protein?

Binding of adrenaline (epinephrine) to the $\beta$-Adrenergic receptor leads to formation of cAMP (via G protein activation), activation of protein kinase A and subsequently to the expression of ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Answer the questions in one word with help of clues and images given [on hold]

Name the things associated with Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek - (6 pictures are given for help and four of them are associated with these clues) a)Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe these and hence ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

What governs the size of animal bodies?

Million of years ago there lived dinosaurs up to 36 m high. About 10,000 years ago lived Machairodontinae -compared to cats today they were huge. About 400,000 years ago lived Mammuthus trogontherii: ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

What Causes Shin Splints?

My shin splints are clearly tied to running. Though the pain level doesn't seem to correlate to my running intensity. So what is it about running that causes shin splints? My real hope is that if I ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Is the quality of sleep dependent on sleep duration?

I've been facing this lately, where I will wake up in the middle of the night after sleeping for perhaps 2-3 hours and be wide awake, but when I go back to sleep, I wake up more tired than before. ...
13
votes
2answers
3k views

How many humans have been in my lineage? Is it almost the same for every human currently living?

If I were to count my father, my grandfather, my great-grandfather, and so on up till, say chimps, or the most common ancestor, or whatever that suits the more accurate answer, how many humans would ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Which factors may affect a choice of an oviposition place in nocturnal moths?

Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) is a small brachypterous (females have stunned wings - unable to fly) moth which places eggs on thick branches. I would like to know which abiotic and biotic factors ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

TV's so loud when I turn over

Scenario: I'm about to fall asleep with the T.V. on. Having completely forgotten that it was, no longer even hearing it, just before falling asleep I turn over with a 'fresh' ear and it's blaring. If ...
6
votes
3answers
68 views

Why is green fur not a thing?

In most biomes on earth, and certainly in the most densely-populated, the best camouflage color or pattern for an animal would be a variant of green, so as to blend in with the leaves and grasses of ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

What do you see when your eyes are closed?

If you are in pitch black and you close your eyes, you sometimes can see strange shapes of various colors. A lot of the time these shapes and colors change as you observe them. This phenomenon still ...
2
votes
0answers
8 views

Is there an association between environmental and mutational robustness?

The robustness of a genotype is the ability of this genotype to resist (always produce the same phenotype) to various parameters such as mutations and environment. The ability of a genotype to resist ...
2
votes
0answers
8 views

How does Pothos grow in only water?

The popular potted plant, Pothos aureus (or Epipremnum aureum) is happy to grow in a jar, with only water, for years. How is this possible when other plants need at least Nitrogen, Phosphorus and ...
1
vote
0answers
3 views

Mutation-drift equilibrium and among loci variance in heterozygosity

At mutation-drift balance, the increased heterozygosity brought by new mutations is exactly equal to the loss of heterozygosity due to genetic drift. At equilibrium, the expected heterozygosity for a ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Can two Hfr strains of E. coli conjugate?

Genetics textbooks (and some internet searching) yield abundant examples of Hfr strains conjugating with F- cells, but these sources are surprisingly silent regarding the results of an Hfr ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

What is this woodlouse doing?

I picked an apple from the ground, it was wet with dew and a woodlouse was stuck to it, with its back against the apple. When it got loose, it started flexing its "tail" like this for a while. Why?
0
votes
0answers
20 views

What are scientifically recommended safe substances for cockroach extermination?

What are some easily/readily available substances that have been scientifically proven to exterminate cockroaches? Moreover, what are the scientifically sanctioned, effective procedures? (There are ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Why does botulinum toxin seem to be more dangerous to humans than to other mammals?

Various mammals seem to get away with eating parts of carcasses that we would prefer to not even touch, and that we assume will make us sick. Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more ...
6
votes
2answers
187 views

How does isopropyl alcohol disinfect less in higher concentration?

Isopropyl alcohol can be used as disinfectant. For increasing concentration of it in water, the effect as disinfectant increases, and then decreases again. Typical concentrations for use as ...
2
votes
1answer
21 views

What are the application areas of Pattern formation studies specific to biology? [on hold]

I was reading about reaction-diffusion processes, morphogenesis concept by Alan Turing and works of Murray in describing pattern formation on animals etc. But one question which came to my mind was ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What are main animal origin antiseptics?

I started to think which are the main animal origin antiseptics to understand possible negative sides of these antiseptics. Antiseptic is a substance that inhibit bacterial growth both in vitro and ...
6
votes
1answer
49 views

Why dont we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Vitamins that could help “make us smarter”? [on hold]

I was at Sprouts health store and saw a lot of vitamins/herbs that claimed to be "Study Aids" etc, so if there is any basis to it, where exactly does it hold truth? And are these supplements safe?
-1
votes
0answers
32 views

Is it possible to resurrect dead animal by using it's DNA?

My pet died yesterday by an accident. I'm feeling so sad, can't even sleep well. I tried to control myself and thought about many philosophical questions, but I can't get away from this sadness. ...
5
votes
1answer
82 views

Would oxygen levels be stable without photosynthesis?

I learned how the CO$_2$ cycle works in several biology classes, high school, elementary school, geology, and physics. Then today there was an article published in the NY Times claiming: ...it is ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Why do spiders have a leaf at the bottom of a piece of web?

I've lately seen a lot of instances where a leaf is dangling from a piece of web coming down off a tree. What purpose/s does this serve for the spider? Is it some sort of mechanism for the spider to ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Distance matrix with different length sequences

In a project we're doing (in python), we want to create a distance matrix for a phylogenetic tree with multiple, different length sequences. However, what we've seen so far (AlignIO in biopython, ...
4
votes
1answer
704 views

How the conjunctivitis virus spread just by seeing a person's eye who is infected

Conjunctivitis or 'pink eye'. I have a few questions on conjunctivitis. When I was suffering from conjunctivitis, my doctor advised me to wear sunglasses so that no one else gets infected. I ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

How can I determine the purity of cells isolated from rat brains if I cannot use FACS, Immunohistochemistry or SEM anaysis?

Please help. I know how to isolate the different cells (astrocytes, other glial cells, neurons and synaptosomes) from brain tissue using a Ficoll-based separation but how do I determine the purity of ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

How is it possible to even hope for an ebola epidemic of this current size to remain contained to a relatively small part of Africa?

As of 9/14/2014 at least 5347 cases of ebola have been identitied. Some estimates are much higher. While experts are sounding the alarm to try to get sufficient resources to contain the outbreak, some ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Determining and Differentiating specific ATPases

In respects to this certain ATPase transporter. What do i look for in respects to determining what specific kind it is out of: F-ATPases V-ATPases A-ATPases P-ATPases E-ATPases Im assuming that ...
5
votes
3answers
207 views

Books for beginners [on hold]

I want to study biology. I have zero previous knowledge of biology but I know Physics, Chemistry and Maths. From which book should I start? I have heard about Campbell Biology, but it is very costly ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

BLASTn vs ORF tools

Sequencing projects sequence one strand and call that the + strand and then extrapolate the sequence of the - strand. This means that sometimes the genomic sequence that you download from a database ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Did the Britons 100 years ago have different intestinal flora and fauna?

Note: this is not a question about history, but about human digestive system over time :) I know a lot of colleagues who traveled for business trips to India. All of them caught terrible diarrhea ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

Why can't a Corn have 13 rows of seeds?

Every time before eating a corn, I count its lines. I would always find 12 or 14 rows of seeds but never 13. Is there any biological/scientific reason behind this?
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Is there any research on how accurately people can follow a beat?

I'm currently helping develop a rhythm game, and as part of the scoring system, I'd like to make scores and ranks based more on accurate pattern recognition rather than hitting notes very exactly on ...
3
votes
1answer
13 views

What is the Baculovirus and how does it help in research?

I was reading up about Biotechnology and the use of insects, and came across an interesting article about Insect Cell culture Techniques that specifically talked about the usage of the Baculovirus. If ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Regarding inherited fertility in animals

If an animal is fertile does it follow that both its parents of the same species (not necessarily the same species of the offspring)? Was it Mayer who said a fertile male and fertile female of two ...
4
votes
2answers
64 views

Transmembrane Protein Problem

Problem A transmembrane protein has 1000 aa. The 5th aa is found on the external side of the cell membrane. It interacts with the aqueous environment outside the cell. Amino acid 90 is inside the ...
6
votes
1answer
66 views

Fisher's Geometric Model for Dummies

Fisher's geometric model is still today one of the most important and fundamental model in evolutionary biology but it seems to me that most student in evolutionary biology don't really understand it ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

3 end RNA seq library construction

I have tried to make cDNA libraries from FFPE tumor blocks (highly degraded RNA) using the 3' end RNA seq protocol provided by West lab. Here is the link for the same. ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Evolutionary support for parenting book “The happiest baby on the block”

The book by Dr Harvey Karp (MD) The Happiest Baby on the Block proposes that the duration of human gestation has evolved as a tradeoff between cranial size and development of the infant. He ...
-1
votes
1answer
35 views

Meiosis I or II [on hold]

Suppose an organism has 8 chromosomes. When the female and male organisms mate, how many chromosomes will the mother contribute to the offspring? Why?
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Definitive list of books across various fields in Biology? [on hold]

There have been a number of popular posts on StackOverflow where a list of popular (useful) books have been compiled on various programming languages or other topics. I wanted to know if there exists ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Sexual Reproduction [on hold]

The primary oocyte of a bird which has 80 autosomes and WZ sex chromosomes is going to divide. How many daughter cells and chromosomes are there in each cell at the end of meiosis I and II?

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