0
votes
1answer
6 views

RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

What exactly is neuroplasticity, and can it be demonstrated with a simple experiment?

As far as I know, neuroplasticity is about restoring brain functions by moving some functions to other still functional. Neuroplasticity is more prominent in children than in adults. What are other ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Is there a formula for determining the % of ligand bound to a given receptor in a mixture with multiple ligands and receptors?

When a ligand and receptor interact with a given kd, one can easily determine % of ligand bound to the receptor when the kd, total concentration of ligand, and total concentration of receptor are ...
4
votes
0answers
23 views

Why is living muscle tissue seemingly able to restore its shape under force, while dead tissue is not?

When I press my finger, even with relatively little force, into beef or chicken (say, at a grocery store), the indentation remains (and I get yelled at by employees). When I hit beef with a ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How can I see that the human hand has 27 degrees of freedom?

I have counted the degrees of freedom in my hand over and over and I keep getting the number 19. Suppose each finger has 3 degrees of freedom. Then 5 * 3 = 15. The wrist can rotate around or back and ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

Is there a significant difference in sedentary calorie-burn between a thinker and non-thinker?

I've read that, on average, a sedentary female burns between 1,600 - 2,000 calories and a sedentary male burns between 2,000 and 2,500 calories. I've also read that the brain itself burns quite a few ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Evolution theory - roses spikes - being more bulgy doesn't give you advantage

I've seen spike, huge spike. And I thought that development of such spikes could be contrary to the evolution theory. Being „little more” spiky doesn’t give you any advantage... So those ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

Are nucleic acids found in cell membranes?

I've found various results online and I was recently marked in on an important test as wrong when I made the assumption they were not found in the cell membrane. Does anyone know what the correct ...
3
votes
1answer
14 views

Why are killer whales found in the Gulf of Mexico smaller than ones found in the Pacific?

I recently found out that there are killer whales that live in the Gulf of Mexico, but they are smaller than killer whales that are commonly found in the Pacific Ocean. Why is it they are smaller in ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What would happen if we had a device that produced oxygen inside of our lungs? [on hold]

Hypothetically speaking, suppose there is a device that produces a limitless supply of oxygen. The device is inhaled by a human and is resting inside the (a) lung. What would hypothetically happen if ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

Safe parameters for external nerve stimulation using electrical impulses

Introduction I've recently stumbled upon David Eagleman's TED talk on the concept of sensory substitution and addition. Being the most inspiring thing I've seen on the internet for the last few ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

Cysticercoids of Eucestoda

I have found the following pictures representing cysticercoids of Eucestoda. If I correctly understand the right part of the picture, I would say that the development of the scolex is portrayed on ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Creatinine Lab Test

Should a Creatinine lab test result (run on a random urine sample, not a 24 hour collection) have a correction for a person's body weight/BMI?
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

R Tool and analysis of Gene Expression data from NCBI GEO datasets [migrated]

When i execute this code in "R" i het answers for this gset <- getGEO("GSE51808", GSEMatrix =TRUE) if (length(gset) > 1) idx <- grep("GPL6244", attr(gset, "names")) else idx <- 1 gset <- ...
6
votes
0answers
42 views

Why polyploidy gives an evolutionary advantage?

I would like to know what advantages polyploidy holds. I have come across a few examples during my research of polyploidy, for example human adults' hearts contain 27% diploid, 71% tetraploid and 2% ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Can I use my extech pH60 meter to measure soil pH if so how? I included a link to the meter [on hold]

Can I use my extech pH60 meter to measure soil pH if so how? I included a link to the meter. Extech pH 60
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Can bacterial RNA be degraded at -80⁰C in a SDS solution?

I would like to know if bacterial RNA in a 1.5 mL 2%SDS solution can be degraded. Comes from a pellet of pure liquid culture. Thanks
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Are there any disadvantages to HRP conjugated PRIMARY antibodies

I need to detect a FLAG tagged protein on a western blot and have to order an antibody. I'm not expecting to see a massive amount of my protein. To keep analysis time to a minimum I am considering a ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Why do I see dreams upon closing my eyes? [on hold]

I know it is widely accepted that dreams happen during the REM period of sleep, which occures after some considerable time from going asleep. Thus my question is: why am I seeing dreams, should I just ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
6
votes
1answer
63 views

Should we induce fever to assist healing?

I am currently reading "The Fundamentals of Anatomy Physiology" 10th edition, and have found it an incredibly interesting book. I have just been reading about the lymphatic system, and the various ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

How does the body respond to blood donation; are there any possible risks?

Can blood donation cause any harm to the donor? I have been told so, but cannot find any references supporting this claim. I have also learned that our body will replace the lost fluids within 24 ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios?

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Understanding conclusions of the fact that functional regions of genes are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : "Fact 1" : all DNA is subject to mutations "Fact 2: most functional regions are under negative selection(ie., mutations are often ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Proving time travel

Consider this answer to an interesting question. It's not possible to prove completely that someone is the descendant of someone else, there's always a nonzero probability that the results are a ...
4
votes
0answers
20 views

Expected time for a neutral allele to reach a frequency of $p_1$ when starting at frequency $p_0$

Kimura and Ohta (1968) show that the expected time for a neutral allele to reach fixation (given that it will reach fixation) is $$\bar t(p_0)=-4N\left(\frac{1-p_0}{p_0}\right)ln(1-p_0)$$ , where ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

Will a store bought cabbage kill my Pieris brassicaes?

About 4 days ago I found a large amount of caterpillars (Pieris brassicae) in my radishes, I took them aside for seeing how they grow and I am out of radishes to give them. I bought a cabbage in the ...
3
votes
3answers
45 views

Any good website/book to understand protein folding and enzymes?

I'm looking for a good, understandable and simple explanation about protein folding, mechanisms and function, and their relationship with enzymes. I understand that the protein is a polypeptidic ...
5
votes
1answer
20 views

Behavioral change in dolphins during different hemispheres activity periods?

It is known that dolphins never sleep in the sense that we do, instead they have one hemisphere of the brain sleeping while the other one is awake. I wonder, do they show observable changes in ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Incremental denaturation of protein mixtures

When a protein solution is heated above the denaturation temperature, it seems that denaturation does not happen at the time the temperature is reached, but it takes some time. I assumed that the ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

For aerobic organism, is oxygen used purely for cellular respiration? [on hold]

I learned about cellular respiration today and it vastly changed my perception of breathing I had since I was small. In fact, I think it would change the perception of anyone who wasn't familiar with ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

What R packages and software to use for multiple alignment and SNP calling on WGS .gb files?

What R packages and software to use for multiple alignment and SNP calling on WGS (Weighted Sequence Graph) .gb (genebank) files? I have tried Mugsy, DNA Star, ...
3
votes
0answers
16 views

How to quantify the Abundance of a particular gene in Bacteria and Archaea?

For 16s rDNA metagenomic analysis, do I need to do the following steps? DNA extraction-> Purification-> PCR amplification-> Clone -> Pick every single colony-> PCR amplify -> Sequence -> ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

Change solvent of bacterial solution

I have to perform an RNA extraction that should start with 900 uL of 2%SDS bacterial solution. The problem is that the sample is in 900 uL of PBS. I thought about centrifugation of the sample at ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

Why proteins are not visible on my membrane after ponceau staining?

I have a problem in western blot that I can't resolve by myself. When I am use to add 100 microgram of proteins for each sample but after running and transfer its impossible to me to see bands of ...
0
votes
2answers
63 views

Horns in animals and birds [on hold]

Are there any carnivores with horns (whether extinct or currently alive)? Do any flying creatures have horns? By horns I mean horn like structure.
3
votes
1answer
39 views

Simplified molecular-input line-entry system

This may be a bit abrupt/vague question, but I didn't know how to proceed the search to get the answer. What are the properties of a 3D biomolecule which gets ignored when a 3D biomolecule is ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Which is the 5’ end of the transcript? [on hold]

Given the splice below, how do I find which end is the 5' end? Thank you!! In the following pre-mRNA, the 5’ and 3’ splice sites are highlighted in bold. What is the sequence of the spliced mRNA? ...
3
votes
0answers
15 views

Why introduction of an extra copy of a gene related to pigmentation causes RNA interference in Petunia?

RNAi became famous after Fire and Mello experiment in C.elegans; however, it had been observed before. In the 80's, Jorgensen was trying to increase pigmentation of Petunia flowers by introducing ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

location of embryo development in angiosperms

What floral organ does the development of the embryos of angiosperms occur in? Is it the ovary? The pollen tube grows down through the style and double fertilization occurs and the embryo begins to ...
4
votes
1answer
24 views

Hand-eye coordination in 3D space

A simple daily event has amazed me and triggered this question. I have read and heard about hand-eye coordination. It quite straightforward when you e.g. want to open a door or play Xbox. In this case ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Nutrition in Plants

What is the source of nutritional support for developing microspores and microgametophytes, developing megaspores and megagametophytes, and developing angiosperm embryos?
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Why do home-grown fruits tend to taste better than mass-produced consumer fruits? [on hold]

It is often heard that home-grown fruits and veggies are a lot tastier than the produce found in the supermarket. Although this question may contain a skeptics element in it, it is so often heard ...
4
votes
1answer
35 views

Can the absorption of vitamins be enhanced?

Are food additives like vitamins better absorbed when you mix them among fruits? I heard that secondary substances in fruit promote the absorption.
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Cationic lipid mediated transfection optimization for 150mm dishes

I need to optimize a transfection protocol to transiently express a plasmid encoding a chimera of eyfp attached to the c term of a Golgi apparatus signaling molecule) in hela cells and hepg2 cells ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

How do BCAA's promote faster muscle recovery?

I am aware that ingesting BCAA's prior, during, and after workouts have an effect on muscle recovery due to their difficulty of metabolism. However, how much more efficiently do they speed up recovery ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

Can the DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) recognize both DNA and RNA for use them as template? I want to know is it possible if my primers bind to an contaminant RNA and then any DNA ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Membrane potential in gram negative bacteria

Does the membrane potential usually quoted for gram negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) refer to the potential across both membranes? - If yes, then does the potential fall more over the inner or outer ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Possible genotypes

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...

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