-3
votes
1answer
42 views

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog? [on hold]

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog? In other words what changes take place as a tadpole becomes a frog, and does this metamorphosis affect the DNA in any way? I would appreciate ...
5
votes
2answers
35 views

Specificity of the immune system

We know that the adaptive immune system recognizes foreign particles when their proteins are expessed of the the surface of T-cells, complexed with MHCs. But MHCs present only short peptides of length ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Does crude oil or kerogen contain ancient DNA?

According to wikipedia by the formation of oil there is a lot of DNA present along with other organic materials. Is it possible that this DNA is conserved somehow for millions of years?
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Is there any biological support for the concept of “chakras”?

Is there any support in modern biology for the ancient concept of "Chakras"? I've seen the concept of 7 chakras linked to the major endocrine glands in the human body (pineal,thyroid, adrenal, ...
6
votes
1answer
23 views

Parameters for Fitzhugh-Nagumo model of Action Potential

I'm a high school student who's currently in AP Biology, so my background in biology is quite limited. I'm interested in mathematically modelling action potentials. Doing a quick google search, I ...
4
votes
1answer
30 views

How far in can non-extremophiles live, in Earth?

I am a high school student. I'm doing a project where I need to find a planet in our galaxy that might be habitable. Then I need to create an organism that could live on that planet and justify ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Question regarding an Escherichia coli reaction

With respect to this link http://www.biocyc.org/ECOLI/NEW-IMAGE?type=REACTION&object=RXN-14479 Here the enzyme is mentioned and the two reacting compounds. Now , my question is 1. When these ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Measuring a plant's electric activity any instructions where to place electrodes?

I would like to measure a plant's electric activity / voltage, I've looked online to find out where to place the electrodes and what type of electrodes to use but they seem to very wildly. Any ideas? ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

pedigree analysis of inbreeding

Under a given situation of cousin inbreeding, I will obtain the same inbreeding coefficient ragardless of using the genealogy or the path approach, i.e. F=1/16 ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Oscillatory Electrical system using a neuron? [on hold]

I wanted to know about generating clock pulse using neurons by giving its own signal as feedback. Suppose for example I culture the neurons on a substrate in a controlled way such that one neuron is ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Why is translocation of food in the phloem still a debate?

I currently take tertiary-high school biology and I am taught that translocation of food in the phloem occurs by the pressure flow hypothesis. I would like to ask why it is still a hypothesis, and ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Why can we control our breath rate but not our heart rate? [on hold]

Even though we cannot survive for more than few minutes if we stop breathing or if our heart stops, why is it so that our heart beat is controlled involuntarily while breathing can be voluntarily ...
2
votes
2answers
70 views

How accurate does the alignment of molecules in DNA have to be?

We have learned that the same information is saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA splits and then connects again (during reproduction); how does it maintain the integrity of the ...
4
votes
2answers
47 views

How to analyse an ECG?

I have a project about extracting features from a homemade ECG. I need the PQRST points from the signal of the heart beat. The ECG I'm using has 3 electrodes that attach to the chest. The problem is ...
7
votes
2answers
63 views

Is cyanocobalamin toxic?

I see that cyanocobalamin is not naturally occurring, and is synthesized in vivo to methylcobalamin. As part of the synthetic pathway, cyanide is broken off. All opinions I can find are that this ...
7
votes
1answer
148 views

What is the reason behind high resting membrane potential of pacemaker cells?

Pacemaker cells have high resting membrane potentials of -50 to -40 mV, whereas normal cells have their resting membrane potential around -70 mV. Which ions, and what kind of channels are responsible ...
5
votes
1answer
58 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Are vegetables really needed in our diet?

I want to believe that eating vegetables is necessary even when one takes vitamins, but I can't find any medical evidence for this. To make my question specific, suppose a study on twins were done in ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

How do minute changes in an organism, as a result of evolution, get carried over to next generation

Theory of evolution states that random variations in organisms occur to better suit their surroundings. We take for example a bacteria's flagella. There's a bacteria who has a tube kind of structure ...
2
votes
4answers
71 views

Why *morning walk*?

My PT teachers professes working-out/training in early morning hours is the best time to do so, a quick search on benefits of morning walk (or some similar phrase) reveals a lot of information which ...
-1
votes
1answer
57 views

Woodpecker pecking, an effective evolution?

I was sitting out on my balcony earlier and saw a woodpecker land on a tree nearby. It began pecking at the tree, and did so about five times, in intervals of about four pecks each time, before ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How many mitotic divisions do haploid cells undergo before fertilization?

Background This question is about human physiology and gametogenesis. A spermatozoid is not necessarily the direct "offspring" of diploid cell. Stated differently, a spermatozoid cell can be the ...
9
votes
1answer
86 views
+50

Biostatistics: Pollen dispersal directionality

What Information am I looking for? Think about a tree that is sending pollen all over the place. Because of wind, most pollen grain will go toward one direction. Imagine, we split the 2D area around ...
0
votes
2answers
18 views

Ribosomal DNA references sequences

I'm having a bit of trouble with searching for this piece of information. I'm doing a study related to phylogenetic susceptibility of hosts to pathogens (based on a recent Nature publication), ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

What determines if a gene is dominant or recessive?

Going back to my high school days we were taught about dominant and recessive genes. We were taught how to calculate the geneotype and pheneotype of potential offspring using a small table (forgotten ...
-2
votes
1answer
48 views

Our muscles give us the ability to move our arms but…? [on hold]

I have a strange question, but let me tell you something first. If you think of this carefully, then you realize something, please try this right now: Contract your muscles only so that your arms ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

Difference between pulse and blood pressure

I'm a very naive and biologically illiterate person, and from what I've read on the internet I'm not really sure I understand the difference between pulse and ...
13
votes
4answers
3k views

Why do parasites sometimes kill their hosts?

It's bothered me for a while now. I understand why a parasitoid would do this, as it only temporarily requires the host, and that not all parasites kill their hosts. There seems to be no evolutionary ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How can I create R8 (homopolymer repeat) filter without using illumina pipeline?

illumina instruments have built-in -or online- analysis software for variant analysis (CASAVA). This software can filter out the false positive variants near the homopolymer repeats (AAAAAAAA) and ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Primer Design With Primer-BLAST

I am trying to design primers for sanger sequencing snp detection. In the past I have used Primer-BLAST, but I'm trying to pick up KRAS codon 12 mutations. The problem is that in Primer-BLAST you ...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

Similarity between a heart attack and a spasm

When someone is having a heart attack, could it be considered , in some situations, a spasm? Below, I have written how I believe the process may work. The heart is basically a muscle working ...
6
votes
3answers
128 views

I have a black tiny bug crawling all over the house

This bug is crawling all around the house it stays within the shadows and moves very very slow, i have never seen it jump or run, it just moves very slowly P.S. those bugs as u can see are smaller ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

What is the probability of fixation for a mutant under fluctuating selection?

Here is an answer which explain how one can model the frequency of an allele that is under fluctuating selection (selection that varies through time). Not, thinking about fluctuating selection, there ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

Human bone density and Brown Bear bone density?

It is stated on this website that the density of a Grizzly bear bone is ten times our own. And since I am not into biology at all, I am confused as I don't understand the meaning of bone density here. ...
7
votes
1answer
74 views

What are parental antagonism & parental conflict?

I've been reading the chapter by Haig et al in The Genetics and Biology of Sexual Conflict. I think this chapter has them quite unclearly defined. Could anyone describe these two phenomenon more ...
1
vote
2answers
18 views

How is the “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in this paper?

Could anyone please explain to be in very basic terms how Fig 2, and the associated text(located above the figure) is done? The jargon is too much for me to understand and I really need a simplified, ...
1
vote
3answers
132 views

If a gene is located on the X sex chromosome does that mean males are either Homozygous dominant or Homozygous recessive and are never Heterozygous?

As said in the title I am a little confused on the Idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was hemophilia a recessive trait and since it is located on the X ...
11
votes
1answer
44 views

Why does mint oil feel cold on the skin?

When putting (japanese) mintoil on the skin it produces a cool feeling. You can experience this, when adding it to your bath or using a spray with mint oil on your skin. The cool feeling occures ...
8
votes
4answers
570 views

How can we differentiate between respiration and breathing?

I am a student of 10th grade, and I eagerly want to learn biology. What is the difference between respiration and breathing?
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Ecology Question (carbon cycle) [on hold]

State the names of the processes that convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds in pond weeds and algae. ( I think it is photosynthesis, not sure) convert organic compounds in pond weeds, algae ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

What is the effect of persistent hypothermia on cardiac performance?

I define persistent hypothermia in this thread about the mechanisms of persistent hypothermia. The Graph of Katzung et al. in Pharmacology about Heart Failure: I am thinking which parts here are ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular?

How can green algae be both multicellular and unicellular? What are the cases in which it can be both uni and multi cellular?
-4
votes
0answers
25 views

Ecology Question [on hold]

I don't get the diameter part of the question. I don't know how to find the diameter. Would be helpful if u can provide all the answers to me?
-5
votes
1answer
38 views

Why do fingers swell during cold winters? [duplicate]

When exercising, tissue in the hands may swell. This may be caused by the muscles generating heat, which leads to blood being pushed to the vessels closest to the surface of your body to dissipate the ...
-2
votes
1answer
28 views

Sex Linked Recessive and Autosomal Recessive Problem [on hold]

Can someone further explain how my teacher got the answers for part B and C? Thank you.
9
votes
2answers
91 views

Why can good music raise goosebumps?

Listening to really good music right now, I was wondering why it raises goosebumps. Is there any physiological reason for this reaction to specific wavelengths or something? EDIT: Due sometimes ...
8
votes
1answer
104 views

Basic question about multiplex PCR

Let's say I have a DNA sequence with the following structure: $$ 5' - N_n - S_1 - N_{1000} - S_2 - N_{1000} - S_3 - N_n - 3' $$ Here, the $N$s represent stretches of arbitrary sequence of the ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How do I construct a restriction map of pBR 322 digested using Pst1, EcoR1 and Hind 3. [on hold]

Gel electrophoresis resulted in the following band size: double digest with Pst1 and Ecor 1 750bp & 3613bp, PST 1 and Hind 3 3584bp and 779bp, Ecor1 and hind 3 29bp and 4334bp. Single digests ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Can intron become exon in alternative splicing?

From this image We can saw several exon that is actually intron in other gene. It's not a really different gene, it's an alternative splicing of a gene. My background is not biology so is it ...

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