0
votes
0answers
3 views

When a muscle contracts, where does the force go?

Geometrically speaking, a muscle contraction should exert a force between the two attachment sites. However, the actual effect of the force on the overall geometry of the body near the point of ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model [on hold]

I'm trying to run a multivariate generalized linear mixed model on a data set. I have 4 response variables, 3 fixed factors, a covariate and a random factor. SPSS can't do the analysis. I've tried ...
4
votes
2answers
18 views

Are there cats with black skin?

Some mammals can have a black, pink or spotted skin, depending on race - see for example humans or pigs. But I recently learned that this is not the case with mice. Even black furred mice have pink ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

How are 23 chromozomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Biochemical coupling between two enzymatic reactions - Enzymes physically associated?

I am wondering what the exact definition of biochemical coupling between two enzymatic reactions is. I know that these two enzymatic reactions have to share the same intermediate(s) one is ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How can TMS induce depolarization?

Depolarization needs at least tens of mV potential difference across the membrane to occur. But the membrane is really thin, surely less then 0.01µm (some reference give 25A). Then the potential ...
4
votes
1answer
32 views

What (open) software there are for simulating behaviour of human (cortical) neurons?

Is there any reliable open-source software for simulating the behaviour of human cortical neurons? I am looking for serious software, so let's assume I have access to a computer with more than 10,000 ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

How do I use BEAST for divergence time estimation in this case?

I am interested in using BEAST to find the divergence time estimates of species separations within a genus of frogs. The genus separated from a outgroup taxon I have chosen around 80 million years ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

Survival of streptococcus after my scarlet fever

I'm currently sick because of scarlet fever but I got treated with antibiotics. I know that after 1.5 day using antibiotics the streptococci I release at home are dangerous anymore. But my question ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

What is the chemical makeup of mealworm frass?

We have been raising mealworms for some time and while mealworm frass has proven very useful as a plant fertilizer, I started wondering about other potential uses of this leftover waste. Can someone ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

What are the forms of host pathogen interaction [on hold]

What are the forms of host pathogen interaction apart from the host pathogen protein protein interaction?? Or is protein protein interface is the only one way of host pathogen interaction?? I am ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

White/Gold vs Blue/Black dress [on hold]

So I'm sure you've all seen the dress photo where people see the dress as either White and Gold or Blue and Black. It has essentially 'split' the internet because some people see the dress and they ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

What is the role of Aspartate Transaminase in gluconeogenesis?

I know that oxaloacetate cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane, but can instead be converted to aspartate, shuttled out, and then re-converted back to oxaloacetate. What does this have to do with ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Common properties of herbs in creating anaphrodisiac effect?

Recently came across Wiki article about anaphrodisiac herbs and other products. An anaphrodisiac (also antaphrodisiac or antiaphrodisiac) is something that quells or blunts the libido. It is the ...
3
votes
0answers
9 views

Procedure for doing western blot [on hold]

I am writing a step by step guide for doing a western blot for a class. It is intended for any one with basic Biology lab skills. I am hoping people will review my draft and give feedback on how to ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

What are pseudoknots?

I'm trying to get my head around what a pseudoknot is and how I can identify them given some RNA string. For example, suppose I have a string s = CGUUGUGUACACGAUAGUACAU. Suppose the two longest ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How to get chemical structures in PDB format?

I am about to embark on the final step of a research project that involves molecular docking. Specifically, I am planning on docking an alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid glycan to the influenza ...
5
votes
1answer
180 views

Are bacteria necessary for an individual's life, or, how long could a person live without bacteria? [on hold]

Bacteria are essential to life in that they are responsible for breakdown of organic substances, etc. but are bacteria necessary for an individual's life? In other words, how long would a human ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

What is the role pyruvate carboxylase in lipogenesis?

I just know that Acetyl-CoA is a positive allosteric modulator for pyruvate carboxylase, but I cannot find anything else.
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

Case study about diabetic woman with comminuted fracture [on hold]

A middle aged diabetic woman is taken to ED after a MVA (motor vehicle accident). She has a compound fracture of her tibia. Imaging shows a comminuted fracture. In respect to this patient describe the ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How do genetic chimeras with different blood types not die?

If a person is a chimera and has two different blood types in his veins, how does he not die? Shouldn't the immune system attack one of the blood types? In 1953 a human chimera was reported in the ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Detailed mechanism of the cause of diabetes mellitus type 1?

I have read in some texts that diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by degeneration of beta cells due to our body's own immune reaction.Is it true? Can you explain further how are such types of immune ...
2
votes
0answers
11 views

To which negatively charged components of the cell envelopes do the crystal violet complexes bind in gram staining?

The gram positive have negative components in the peptidoglycan layer in the form of teichoic acid phosphodiester bonds, and the gram negative have negative components in their outer membrane in the ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

The human organism knows what we have to eat? [on hold]

My mother has told that if your organism needs a vitamin, you want fruits include that vitamin. For example you have lack of C-vitamin you would like to eat lemon. Is there any explanation for it, or ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Why are twins so similar? [on hold]

It strikes me that it could be the same conditions of the fetuses in uterus or the same conditions of the sperms, but I am really not sure in this way. Thanks.
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Strange Cordeyceps-looking Mushroom in Australia

In the past few weeks, after the rain started up I noticed these mushrooms around my local area. I'd never seen them previously out of the 20 years I've lived here (a town in Queensland, Australia). ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Does all fungi has has N-Acetyl Glucosamine (Chitin) as the main component of their cell wall?

I came across a question which somewhat goes like In which of the following kingdom, MOST of the members have a cell wall made of polysaccharide and amino acids ? - Monera or Fungi. To me it looks ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

why plants cannot use atmospheric nitrogen? [duplicate]

Earth's atmosphere constitutes 78% of Nitrogen, then why do plants need to absorb Nitrogen from the soil. Why couldn't it possible for them to absorb the atmospheric Nitrogen like they do in the case ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

What is an example of an anabolic reaction in a plant [on hold]

What is an example of an anabolic reaction in a plant Need to know ASAP thanks
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What is the best way to splice genes into a mouse embryo? [on hold]

I need two specific genes spliced into the genome of a mouse embryo. How is the best way to do this? Some sort of plasmid perhaps? Where is the best place to get the genes/plasmids I need and what ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What's the (or some of the) minimum(s) amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide needed by plants?

We currently have a problem of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. But assuming we find a way to carbon sink it, what is the minimum CO2 we need to leave in the atmosphere to provide a source for ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

Are there anyother method under research for curing rabies? [duplicate]

Why is rabies incurable after onset of symptoms? Although we administer HRIG (lyssa virus antibody) to the patient, why doesn't it work after onset of symptoms? And are there any other successful ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Link between macro lncRNA and DNA looping

I was wondering if anybody knows some publication about macro lncRNA (very long unspliced RNAs) or more generally a transcribed RNA that may lead to cis-DNA looping of genomic regions overlapped by ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

protein with highest affinity to lactose

I was wondering: What is the protein with the highest affinity to lactose ? Are there some databases with values for affinity ? Thanks in advance
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What's the exactly definition of a cooperative process?

I know, for exemple, that the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin exibits a cooperative pattern, which reflects in a sigmoid curve, since the binding of one molecule increases the probability of new ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Aspects of host pathogen interaction [on hold]

I have very simple(probably silly) question. I am a bit confused, hence asking. Does the epitope mapping fall under host pathogen interaction? What I want to know is what are the aspects of host ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

What is the difference between gene and CDS annotations?

I have a bunch of sequence files fetched from the EBI ENA and I'm trying to find the end of the 5' UTR for specific genes. The UTR itself doesn't seem to be annotated in most sequence files I have. ...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

Is it possible to cause cancer in another person? [on hold]

Is it possible to poison someone's food on a daily basis in order to give them cancer? The thing here is that i'm worried someone at my workplace might be poisoning other people's water (each ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

With humans, is being transgender innate, or caused by social factors?

In humans, is being transgender something that is innate, or is it caused (or made more likely) by social factors such as their political beliefs, their religious views or their social environment?
4
votes
1answer
49 views

Why does high pH result in the denaturation of DNA?

In the Southern blot method, for example, a solution of NaOH is used to denature the DNA in the sample. I find this counterintuitive since I expected that $\text{Na}^+$ cations would neutralize the ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Grey hair at the roots everywhere all of a sudden [on hold]

I see Grey hair at the roots everywhere on my head all of a sudden. It was fine like a a month ago. I had grey hair but not like this. I use color, gel. Any suggestion why this is happening and also ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Baby birds hair and mammal hair is a convergent evolution?

Chicks (baby of chickens) and ducklings seem to have fine hairs, at least something look like hairs to me. Most mammals have hairs, but reptiles, fish, or other animal groups do not have hairs as far ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Using a Sphygmomanometer [on hold]

If you were to use an older sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope to record blood pressure, why would you hear no sound when the cuff was inflated to 160mmHg
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Why do most organisms have negative supercoiled DNA?

It has been observed that in nature most organisms have negative supercoiled DNA and that few organisms have positive supercoiled DNA. Some of the organisms that have the positive supercoiled DNA live ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

What is the “seal”? [on hold]

There's a common phrase in English: break the seal The point at which you first piss after you have been drinking your favorite alcoholic beverage and at this point you will be pissing every ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Examples of how the presence or absence 2'-hydroxyl groups influence physicochemical properties of DNA and RNA

I know, for instance, that RNA is much more succetible to alkaline hydrolysis than DNA and this difference is determined by the presence of 2'-hydroxyl group in ribose. I have also heard that "DNA is ...
2
votes
2answers
20 views

Relative microRNA comparison from from TCGA data?

I have a conceptual question that I was hoping someone could answer. Can I say that microRNA A is expressed x-fold greater than microRNA B directly from the TCGA miRseq data? Can I do this after ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Parasites with both plant and animal hosts?

Are there animals (or plants) that are parasitic on both animals and plants? Especially such that they rely on their plant host being eaten by their animal host?
1
vote
1answer
30 views

How does ANF increase GFR?

ANF as we know reduce the Na+ uptake and K+ removal in the distal tubules and it also functions as a Vasodialator (?) But again it says that ANF increases the Glomerular filtrate ? But if it is acting ...
2
votes
0answers
8 views

What makes substances allergenic?

Is it possible to tell or rule out (potentially a priori) whether any given substance or compound is likely and how likely to cause allergies with high confidence, without the need to conduct ...

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