2
votes
0answers
19 views

Identity by descent among unrelated individuals

I was reading a couple of papers which talk about IBD (Identity by descent) among unrelated individuals (for eg. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/4/1193.long). However they do not seem to clearly ...
5
votes
1answer
11 views

What is the connection between sleep requirement and age?

By this question: Is the human biological clock genetically programmed or learnt? we discussed that the sleep requirement depends on the age of the individual. - Figure 1. - Sleep requirements by ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Queller's 1985 version of hamilton's rule

Queller 1985 ("Kinship, reciprocity and synergism in the evolution of social behavior") provides a generalization of Hamilton's rule that allows for non-additivity. To accomplish that, Queller writes ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

How many smaller muscles compose the interosseus muscle in the human hand?

When looking at Wikipedia, I read that the interosseus muscle is actually composed of 3 muscles, but on the French Wikipedia, they talk about a 4th muscle. So how many interosseus muscle components ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Has a new functional structure ever been observed arising spontaneously?

Have we ever observed a new functional biological structure arising spontaneously such as a new functional organ (sensory or otherwise. such as tracing some creature in the past few hundred years ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Affymetrix SNP data, how to filter out rows based on rsid

This is my first time on stackexchange. I am new to bioinformatics, and I have some new SNP data from an Affymetrix Axiom array. I have the genotypes exported into a giant tab-delimited table txt ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views
+50

Why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?

This causes more transpiration to occur from lower leaf surface. What's the exact reason for why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?
3
votes
3answers
66 views

What is a good source that will help me classify protists?

I am a 15 year old that enjoys looking at the micro world. The only issue that I have is that I can't find a good online source that will help me classify the name of the micro organism that I'm ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Can we stop hearing by ourselves? [on hold]

If we don't want to see we can close our eyes. But if we want to avoid noise we can't do that just then as we don't have such fast reflex action to close our ears with hands like eyes. But like some ...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

Oral allergy syndrom, continuation of continuous consumption of allergen

Wikipedia states on its page that In addition, patients are advised to avoid the triggering foods, particularly nuts. And same thing goes for webmd.com The basic rule: If a food makes you ...
1
vote
1answer
276 views

Crossing white eyed Drosophila with sepia eye

So, I'm doing some drosophila experiments with my high schoolers and I had really poor production of wild type individuals for doing the experiment resulting in not enough to cross with everyone... I ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

How copy number variation thresholds are defined in GISTIC

I am having trouble trying to understand how GISTIC discretize copy number variation to values -2, -1, 0, 1, 2. I am using TCGA copy number variation for ColoRectal Adenocarcinoma. In cBioPortal FAQ ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

How to calculate the Jaccard index

I want to calculate the Jaccard index between two compounds. What is the algorithm? I have searched for it, it just gives the formula but how to apply it on compounds is not known to me. Can you help? ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Are Italians genetically separated from other Europeans?

I was reading this Wikipedia article about the genetic history of Italy, and I found it interesting. There are however a few things that puzzle me, because they seem to contradict each other. For ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

New GO terms after TopGO enrichment?

I ran an enrichment analysis with custom annotations using TopGO and surprisingly I obtained new GO terms inside the significant GO terms. Is that possible? The only reason I can imagine this is ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

E. coli not growing in liquid medium

We are regularly doing bacterial transformation and subculture from plate to liquid media to extract DNA. This usually goes very well and is straightforward, but occasionally, the colonies that grew ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Can light pollution cause cancer?

Impaired circadian rhythm is associated with cancer. Light pollution affects the circadian rhythm and the circadian rhythm affects the metabolism. But what is the (molecular) connection between ...
3
votes
1answer
24 views

What is this insect that has invaded my home in Texas?

After the recent floods in central Texas this past weekend I noticed my that bedroom has suddenly been infested with these small insects that have climbed in through the window. Previously, the hole ...
2
votes
2answers
33 views

What is “theae folium”?

I wanted to buy black tea at a pharmacy and the pharmacist told me that russian tea is actually black tea so I bought it instead.It's made out of theae folium leaves and for some reason I can't find ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Is there a consensus on the CaMV 35S minimal promoter sequence?

We have an algal enhancer element and a transcription factor that probably binds it. Basal expression of the enhancer element or full promoter driving luciferase in tobacco protoplast was extremely ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

What can cause a lump in the middle of the neck? (homework case study)

What can cause an erythematous, fluctuant, nontender mass in the middle of the neck? Full Case Study: (Its the last of 6 cases and I just can't figure this one out, because of all the possibilities, ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

Why do smaller mammals move in “snappy” fashion?

I was watching a nice little video on youtube but couldn't help but notice how snappy smaller animals such as rats and chipmunks move. By snappy I mean how the animal moves in almost discrete states ...
4
votes
0answers
24 views

How pronounced is the difference if we would change the running direction for runners?

I was jogging when I asked myself this question: In running contests the standard running direction is counterclockwise; I also believe to remember that the regulation is very old (right back to the ...
11
votes
1answer
336 views

How old does a baby have to be before it can retain memories?

For most people (my earliest memories are of perhaps when I was 2 or so) their earliest memories would be when they were over a year old. How old does the average baby have to be before it can ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Y-chromosome and phenotype

I have a male colleague which has a son that does not resemble its father in any degree (apart of being male). The "father" is thin, tan-skinned, brown-eyed and the "son" has blue eyes, blond and ...
4
votes
0answers
21 views

Do newborns resemble their father?

An often heard theory is that newborns resemble the father more than the mother, a theory apparently ignited by a Nature paper by Christenfeld and Hill (1995). It is suggested that paternal matching ...
2
votes
2answers
117 views

Question about cell membrane

I just started learning about the structure and composition of cell's membrane and there is one little detail that I fail to understand. So, the membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. The ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Sexually homologous traits

When papers refer to traits as being sexually homologous do they refer to traits which are: a) present in both sexes but can be dimorphic (e.g. body size is sexually homologous because both sexes ...
9
votes
1answer
923 views

What kind of memory is “keyboard/keypad memory”?

I work in IT and I have observed many people who cannot remember their iPhone passwords or computer passwords off the top of their head. However, if presented with a keyboard or a phone with a ...
5
votes
2answers
49 views

What ways are there to determine how big genera are?

I want to look at genera as a whole, across the animal kingdom to determine the range of sizes of genera. I have examined species richness and genetic diversity (pairwise distance from sequence data ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Risks in bacterial phage therapy

I just finished reading J. Craig Venter's book Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life. The book is a little over a year old now, and Venter has an optimistic ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

Measuring a plant's electric activity any instructions where to place electrodes?

I would like to measure a plant's electric activity / voltage, I've looked online to find out where to place the electrodes and what type of electrodes to use but they seem to very wildly. Any ideas? ...
2
votes
3answers
32 views

Looking for good reference book in molecular biology [on hold]

I am starting to work in molecular biology/ molecular genetic and I am looking for a really good book containing the main concepts and mostly the more recent techniques. I would be interested in a ...
4
votes
1answer
53 views

How to seek for available genetic data relevant to ecology and evolution?

I had a quick look online. There seems to exist many different website of database archiving. Some data might be free of charge while some others might not be. I found things such as Dryad, TreeBase, ...
3
votes
2answers
138 views

Which hydroxyl from either the phosphate or the glycerol is taken during synthesis of a phospholipid head?

The oxygen anion in the phosphate group is likely to be bonded with a hydrogen cation and thus forming a hydroxyl. When the phosphate group is condensed with glycerol to make a phospholipid, is the ...
13
votes
2answers
296 views

Is the human biological clock genetically programmed or learnt?

Argument favouring learning: A newborn sleeps for 20-22 hours. But overtime (s)he learns to focus sleeping time to night time, according to his or her needs and family needs. Some sleep from 1 am to 7 ...
1
vote
4answers
90 views

True or False: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely, not all the time

I read the following statement in this article: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely - not all the time Is it true? If yes, why?
9
votes
1answer
147 views

Circular mRNA to produce long proteins

Ribosomes can read mRNA and produce proteins, if we somehow make a circular mRNA for the ribosome to bind onto, it will make infinitely long "proteins", (since ribosomes can make very big proteins, I ...
-4
votes
1answer
61 views

Can pandas hunt for meat?

Recently, I learned that pandas have a carnivore's digestive system but that it exists almost exclusively as a herbivore. If pandas hunted would they be able to find meat in their environment? Can't ...
4
votes
2answers
37 views

How does a virus reach its host, it is always passive? [on hold]

We know that viruses are non motile and cannot metabolise, and that it enters the host cells via binding to the receptors. But how exactly it reaches the host (that is, how it go from the ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Why do we have mostly 3 lines in our palm? [on hold]

Whenever we get sense to feel what's outside us we see we have some particular patterned structures in our palms. What is the reason for that and why mostly it has 3 main lines?
3
votes
5answers
1k views

Are there any papers arguing against vaccination in French? [on hold]

Disclaimer: This question is NOT about challenging the safety or efficacy of vaccines. It is only asking for tips on providing credible references that may show harmful effects of vaccination, if any. ...
6
votes
1answer
71 views

What is most ancestral: isogamy or anisogamy?

Sexual reproduction can be feasible with anisogamy (gametes of different sizes i.e. genders) or isogamy (gametes of same size i.e. mating types) or with undifferentiated gametes (i.e. true random ...
7
votes
1answer
71 views

Why do we find some things disgusting and others delicious?

For example, why do I love paprika while my girlfriend hates it? Why do I find broccoli disgusting and she adores it? As humans, there are things we'd all agree on being awful, like rotten meat, for ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

How many ATP molecules do stearic acid give rise to in the beta oxidation? [on hold]

Stearic acid is $\ce{C18H36O2}$ How much ATP does one stearic acid molecule give rise to if we assume that all generated $\text{NADH}$, $\text{FADH}_2$ and $\text{acetyl-CoA}$ goes to Kreb's cycle and ...
5
votes
1answer
30 views

Can nociceptors die because of too much mechanical stress?

In martial art people hit their body (e.g., with small bean bags) to become more insensitive to pain. Can the sensory neurons die during this procedure? I think this is just an urban legend. Instead, ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Specific genetic code sequence [closed]

Wikipedia gives the following example of genetic code (this one from mRNA): AUG ACG GAG CUU CGG AGC UAG This sequence appears to be part of a much longer ...
5
votes
1answer
74 views

Why do we get tired [on hold]

At the end of a day full of work, it is general for people that their eyelids start to feel heavy. Laziness takes over and we begin to yawn. We all know that we're tired at that time, but why people ...
2
votes
2answers
163 views

A question on glycolysis

In the first step of glycolysis, the glucose ring is phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group to a molecule derived from ATP. As a result, at this point in ...
14
votes
1answer
177 views

Do species other than humans have distinct daily feeding patterns?

I have a general interest in complex adaptive systems and I have found that nature and the organisms within it is a perfect natural case of a rich adaptive system with a lot of possibilities for ...

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