2
votes
1answer
462 views

How do you increase eumelanin but not pheomelanin?

Are Scientists currently looking into this?
2
votes
0answers
18 views

What determines the thickness of Cornea?

In eye-operations such as Lasik and Femto, the thickness of cornea is key decision factor whether the operation is feasible. A normal thickness is between 500-600 µm. Cornea consists of a very special ...
9
votes
1answer
92 views

Vaccination and population dynamics of an epidemic

I'm trying to figure out how should a vaccination model be built to correlate with population density, and I'm having problems to understand meanings of the results I receive when I apply theory on ...
-1
votes
1answer
277 views

How to convert nanogram to picomole? [closed]

I have lets say 10ng/uL of RNA. How can I convert it to picomole? I need it to calculate how much magnetic beads I need. This is the product: ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Accelerated tree growth

Can someone explain to me the growth of a tree after it is cut just above the ground, if that happens at all? Also if it does, what would it look like during an exponential growth spurt, but gaining ...
-1
votes
0answers
7 views

Eukaryotes and Genetic Modification

Assuming endosymbiotic hypothesis on Mitochondria evolution, is it feasible that humans could Genetically modify ourselves ... As far as it comes to a cell producing Mitochondria, are they present in ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Clustal X command-line version

I downloaded a precompiled executables CLUSTAL software from http://www.clustal.org/clustal2/. When a .dmg file was downloaded, I tried clicking it but then it pops up: ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

How can I compare the STRIDE and DSSP output files of a particular pdb file?

I have the pdb file of H-ras protein 5P21.pdb. I am supposed to compare the output of DSSP and STRIDE files after feeding this pdb file to respective servers. My question is how to make a quick ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

What is the mechanism of reflex arcs?

When a reflex arc occurs the signal from the receptor passes straight to the motor neuron instead of being passed onto the brain. This is a rather simplistic explanation, I was hoping to make it more ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Can Hepatitis be caused by Bacteria?

There are many information about viral hepatitis. But it is interesting for me, can bacteria cause the hepatitis too?
1
vote
2answers
38 views

How does high-fidelity of DNA replication depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds?

Replication has an error rate of less than 1 in 100 million. DNA polymerase forms H-bond with the H-bond acceptor atoms in the minor groove. <-- enhance fidelity here? Binding of the triphosphate ...
5
votes
2answers
176 views

poor RNA quality from zebrafish embryos

Does anyone routinely do RNA isolation from zebrafish embryos? I have embryos from different stages but all below 24hpf. This is the protocol I follow: Take 10-20 embryos Wash once with milliQ ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

How fast cancer cells divide, compared to normal cells

This question suggests that we have, on average, 50-70 billion cell divisions per day. I just read that cancer cells divide more often (therefore more prone to radiation). I am wondering, for a ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Any relevant knowledge/studies about voluntary goose bumps

I'm not entirely sure how normal this is, but since I was a child, I've been able to produce myself voluntarily a "chill" sensation that seems to start on my head and traverse the rest of my body, ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

What is the name of the critter depicted in the attached image?

I found a critter on my bathroom towel. It's really tiny. Maybe 2 milimetres? I placed it on an envelope for the photograph. Can someone identify what it is?
17
votes
3answers
897 views

Why do we need red blood cells?

From what I know, the main function of red blood cells is hemoglobin transport. So, why do we need cells packed with hemoglobin: why can't it travel freely in the bloodstream? My own thoughts were: ...
1
vote
1answer
12 views

Lateral corticospinal tract and termination

I'm studying the motor pathways of the brain and I'm a bit confused about how the lateral corticospinal tract descends. From Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas by ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

What kind of fly is this?

I found this dude hanging out in my sink, but he didn't fly away when I put a dish in the sink. Turned out it was dead. The front part looks exactly like a housefly. But, I've never seen the back end ...
2
votes
0answers
8 views

Why is the vermis of the cerebellum associated with speech?

I've found multiple sources claiming that damage or impairment as a result of alcohol to the vermis of the cerebellum results in speech impairment. I find this a bit surprising, since the only areas I ...
15
votes
2answers
4k views

Why is cold water more refreshing than warm water?

Obviously, the temperature of water does not affect its chemical composition. At least not in the ranges we are likely to drink it in. Yet it is clearly far more pleasant and refreshing to drink cool ...
1
vote
1answer
12 views

Are there multicellular isogamous species?

Are there multicellular isogamous species? Seeking through the examples of wikipedia I would tend to think that there are no multicellular isogamous species.
2
votes
0answers
11 views

How many cells in apical meristem

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... I would tend to think that there are few hundreds (maybe only a hundred) cells in the meristem tissue. But I ...
4
votes
2answers
64 views

Simulating substitution rate of neutral mutations

I am trying to computationally simulate a population based on the Wright-Fisher model I would like to get to the classic result of the neutral theory of molecular evolution that the rate of neutral ...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

Sporophyte and gametophyte

My textbook says that in both groups of seedless plants (vascular plants, non-vascular plants) the gametophyte is a free-living plant, independent of the sporophyte. I don't understand this statement ...
4
votes
1answer
74 views

Does adding milk to cereal make it harder for our body to absorb the vitamins and minerals from the cereal?

I add about 3/4 cups of Blue Diamond almond milk (unsweetened) every morning to a single serving of Cheerios. The milk contains filtered water, and I read that drinking water with food at the same ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

What is the difference between rheobase and threshold?

What is the difference between rheobase and threshold? In the definitions I've read it's described as almost the same thing and when I asked my professor he couldn't convince me so can you give a ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Why do we like salt?

A few friends of mine told me that salt provides zero nutritional value to us, and in fact can harm our bodies. Now, these guys are medical students, and being an engineering student myself, I decided ...
5
votes
2answers
30 views

Alternatives to trypsin for cell detachment?

I have ran out of trypsin and need to passage my cells (immortalized chondrocytes, C28/I2) today or tomorrow. I have been out of town and forgot to order more trypsin. I was wondering if there are ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Which immunosuppression caused by long-term usage of these antibiotics in untreated celiac disease?

These antibiotics include amoxicillin + acidum clavulanicum (beta-lactam, inhibit cell wall synthesis, broad specturm, 3rd gen aminopenicillin) / last part preventing the resistance ceftriaxone (3rd ...
1
vote
2answers
16 views

How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

About the plight of Elephants and efforts to conserve them? [on hold]

Poachers are only after the ivory horns right? I read this story from the New York Times ( I think) of saving a Rhinocerous by some Park Rangers and a Vet. ( forgive spelling) ; they tranquilized the ...
15
votes
3answers
4k views

Why isn't vomit corrosive?

Vomit comes from gastric acid, right? And in gastric acid there is HCl and HCl is corrosive (strong), how come when I vomit, it doesn't destroy things that it (as the vomit) hits (such as floor, ...
0
votes
1answer
7 views

What is the difference between the basal membrane and the basal lamina?

I'm researching about the basal lamina in lung tissue and I'm not sure if the basal membrane is the same. What is the difference between them?
3
votes
1answer
19 views

How are chickens affected by light?

When I was young, I was told never to put a fluorescent light in a hen house because it continuously turns on and off. Extra lighting is used, as far as I know, to 'extend' a chicken's day. Human eyes ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Book-recommendation: Economic Zoology

I need to have a book which covers following topics two may also be fine: (a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture. (b) Major infectious ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Like size and colour constancy, why does the brain not maintain focus constancy?

I have progressive myopia. I grew up with perfectly normal eyes but slowly started getting myopic. The thing is, my brain knows (or should know) what the world looks like -- it knows that far away ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

A good introductory book to histology?

Like the title says, I am looking for a good introductory text to histology. It would ideally cover sample preparation microscopy staining, and several example experiments Suggestions?
0
votes
2answers
44 views

What are the genus and species name of different breeds of dog?

Can you refer me to a good source containing the genus and species name of different breeds of dogs?
5
votes
2answers
33 views

Problems understanding membrane potential

I understand that membrane potential is the difference of the extracellular and intracellular ionic charges, due to their concentrations. We say that the extracellular space has a charge of 0 and then ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Are there organisms that have incorporated plastic into their lives?

Are there organisms that have incorporated (manmade) plastic into their lives in any way? Either in their diet, or as a part of their body?
8
votes
1answer
222 views

How do the pharmacodynamics of the NSAIDs differ and are there “resistant” COX phenotypes?

I know that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen) affect the enzymes cyclooxygenase (types I and II). Is there any difference in the degree to which these ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Nystagmus drug FDA approval?

Congenital Nystagmus is an eye focusing disorder. It happens in manuals. Wikipedia lists several treatments on its page. Are any of those FDA approved for human use of that disease. drugs found ...
2
votes
2answers
62 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Regarding benign tumors and what 'stops' them

Benign tumors can grow to dangerous size yet are they capable of metastisizing ; if not what stops this? Also with a benign tumor if you call its cells 'near' its edges its tumor 'cell wall' I was ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

How does protein denaturation work?

I was wondering how protein denaturation works. Are there covalent bonds, such as disulfide bridges involved, or is it based purely on non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds? Why is denaturation ...
5
votes
2answers
886 views

Does cooking or ripening reduce the concentration of solanine in nightshade?

I recall a story from one of my Botany professors where he encountered a woman picking Solanum dulcamara (nightshade) berries. When he asked her what she was doing with them, she responded that her ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

How to visualize the ECM?

Specifically, I'd like to look at changes in HA (hyaluronic acid) production. Most often you only see people staining the cell surface or removing cells from culture for fixation and then imaging. ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

are cranial nerves responsible for the fault mechanism [duplicate]

how speech is produce and why people stammer during the speech. What factor is culprite for the fault mechanism? Is it nerves?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

MRI with lots of white matter.

Why might an MRI show a large amount of white matter and a low amount of gray matter yet have a full skull with little shrinkage in an above average intelligence primate?
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Cost of Substitution explained

I've recently come across an article that mentions "Cost of Substitution" and was wondering if someone can give me a real layman's term explanation of what that is. (Edited:) This was in relation to ...

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