0
votes
0answers
2 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to horizontal gene transfer, ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Should we induce fever to assist healing?

I am currently reading "The Fundamentals of Anatomy Physiology" 10th edition, and have found it an incredibly interesting book. I have just been reading about the lymphatic system, and the various ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios?

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
2
votes
3answers
28 views

Any good website/book to understand protein folding and enzymes?

I'm looking for a good, understandable and simple explanation about protein folding, mechanisms and function, and their relationship with enzymes. I understand that the protein is a polypeptidic ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Blood donation and problems

Is blood donation cause any threats to the donor, I am a regular blood donor and I have came across a person who claims that blood donations can cause threats to the donor(I had argued but he claims ...
5
votes
1answer
17 views

Behavioral change in dolphins during different hemispheres activity periods?

It is known that dolphins never sleep in the sense that we do, instead they have one hemisphere of the brain sleeping while the other one is awake. I wonder, do they show observable changes in ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Proving time travel

Consider this answer to an interesting question. It's not possible to prove completely that someone is the descendant of someone else, there's always a nonzero probability that the results are a ...
2
votes
0answers
10 views

Expected time for a neutral allele to reach a frequency of $p_1$ when starting at frequency $p_0$

Kimura and Ohta (1968) show that the expected time for a neutral allele to reach fixation (given that it will reach fixation) is $$\bar t(p_0)=-4N\left(\frac{1-p_0}{p_0}\right)ln(1-p_0)$$ , where ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Understanding conclusions of the fact that functional regions of genes are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : "Fact 1" : all DNA is subject to mutations "Fact 2: most functional regions are under negative selection(ie., mutations are often ...
5
votes
1answer
67 views

Are some facial features more important than others in human facial recognition?

I'm often surprised by the human ability to correctly identify other individuals despite significant modifications due to ageing, hairstyle, injury, etc. But, sometimes the addition of a beard and a ...
18
votes
3answers
2k views

Is there any use of CO₂ in human body?

We all know CO₂ as a waste product of metabolism . Does CO₂ have any helpful role , apart from having a role in pH of blood ?
7
votes
1answer
238 views

Cytoplasmic determinants - protostomes and deuterostomes

Cytoplasmic determinants are spread unevenly in the egg, and so when embryo starts forming (cells start dividing), the determinants are also unequally divided between cell. This unequal distribution ...
9
votes
1answer
71 views

Non-harmful bacterial invasion of cells

There are bacteria that can enter body cells as parasites. Could it be that some of these are benign, such that the guest will not kill the host cell it lives in (in human)?
3
votes
0answers
18 views

Will a store bought cabbage kill my Pieris brassicaes?

About 4 days ago I found a large amount of caterpillars (Pieris brassicae) in my radishes, I took them aside for seeing how they grow and I am out of radishes to give them. I bought a cabbage in the ...
-1
votes
0answers
31 views

Why can't we remember something sometimes? [on hold]

We've all had something a time where we "learned" something for school and then forgot it the next day. However, we remember something that happened 3 years ago. Why is our short term memory ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Energy metabolism in Cancer cells

The TCA cycle intermediate Isocitrate dehydrogenase commonly undergoes point mutations in cancers. This allows IDH to reduce a-Ketogluterate to 2Hydoxygluterate, causing a reduction in pVHLs ability ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Why is it important to study chromatin to understand cancer?

Many labs and many projects in biology institutes and university departments have been starting to study chromatin. Chromatin states, chromatin interactions, chromatin loopings, chromatin behaviours, ...
0
votes
2answers
56 views

Horns in animals and birds [on hold]

Are there any carnivores with horns (whether extinct or currently alive)? Do any flying creatures have horns? By horns I mean horn like structure.
-2
votes
0answers
17 views

Does the age of marriage have anything to do with our physiology? [on hold]

In the case of girls, it's guessable that their bodies may not have grown strong enough to hold babies, so age of their marriage is set at 18. But what's the reason for boys' age of marriage to be 21? ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Simplified molecular-input line-entry system

This may be a bit abrupt/vague question, but I didn't know how to proceed the search to get the answer. What are the properties of a 3D biomolecule which gets ignored when a 3D biomolecule is ...
2
votes
0answers
11 views

How to quantify the Abundance of a particular gene in Bacteria and Archaea?

For 16s rDNA metagenomic analysis, do I need to do the following steps? DNA extraction-> Purification-> PCR amplification-> Clone -> Pick every single colony-> PCR amplify -> Sequence -> ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

What R packages and software to use for multiple alignment and SNP calling on WGS .gb files?

What R packages and software to use for multiple alignment and SNP calling on WGS (Weighted Sequence Graph) .gb (genebank) files? I have tried Mugsy, DNA Star, ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Incremental denaturation of protein mixtures

When a protein solution is heated above the denaturation temperature, it seems that denaturation does not happen at the time the temperature is reached, but it takes some time. I assumed that the ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

For aerobic organism, is oxygen used purely for cellular respiration? [on hold]

I learned about cellular respiration today and it vastly changed my perception of breathing I had since I was small. In fact, I think it would change the perception of anyone who wasn't familiar with ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Why proteins are not visible on my membrane after ponceau staining?

I have a problem in western blot that I can't resolve by myself. When I am use to add 100 microgram of proteins for each sample but after running and transfer its impossible to me to see bands of ...
4
votes
1answer
21 views

Hand-eye coordination in 3D space

A simple daily event has amazed me and triggered this question. I have read and heard about hand-eye coordination. It quite straightforward when you e.g. want to open a door or play Xbox. In this case ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

Change solvent of bacterial solution

I have to perform an RNA extraction that should start with 900 uL of 2%SDS bacterial solution. The problem is that the sample is in 900 uL of PBS. I thought about centrifugation of the sample at ...
4
votes
1answer
17 views

Is it possible that a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color vision deficiency?

Women possess 2 X chromossomes, however, during development, when the embryo has about 32~64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by a lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Role of Calcium and Magnesium in capacitation/acrosome reaction

During the acrosome reaction, the activation enzyme present in the sperm dissolves the corona radiata and zona pellucida enabling the sperm to reach the plasma membrane of the egg. Also calcium and ...
11
votes
1answer
146 views

Average dimensions of the human back (anthropometry)

I am wondering if anyone can point me to (a scientific source that provides) the estimates of the dimensions (length x width) of the human back? I am specifically interested in the dimensions ...
-2
votes
0answers
40 views

Use genetical modification to produce quantum computer? [on hold]

Is it theoretically possible to use organism modifications in order to make it produce molecules capable of forming Qbits, therefore performing quantum computing. Instead of constructing Qbits ...
3
votes
2answers
42 views

Sequence compression method / format

As someone working with sequencing data and sequence files I was wondering whether is there a compression method / format for sequence / read files? Of course one can use general compressors like rar ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

Can the absorption of vitamins be enhanced?

Are food additives like vitamins better absorbed when you mix them among fruits? I heard that secondary substances in fruit promote the absorption.
3
votes
4answers
147 views

Do animals also dream?

By "dream", I mean: Dreaming while sleeping. Dreaming about their future life while being awake. Thank you in advance.
6
votes
2answers
106 views

What physiological processes within a muscle cause the latent period in a muscle fiber?

This is a lab question I cant find the answer in the lab manual or in the text book. What physiological processes in a muscle cause the latent period in a muscle fiber? Please help. Edit: The latent ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Which is the 5’ end of the transcript? [on hold]

Given the splice below, how do I find which end is the 5' end? Thank you!! In the following pre-mRNA, the 5’ and 3’ splice sites are highlighted in bold. What is the sequence of the spliced mRNA? ...
2
votes
0answers
11 views

Why introduction of an extra copy of a gene related to pigmentation causes RNA interference in Petunia?

RNAi became famous after Fire and Mello experiment in C.elegans; however, it had been observed before. In the 80's, Jorgensen was trying to increase pigmentation of Petunia flowers by introducing ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Why do home-grown fruits tend to taste better than mass-produced consumer fruits? [on hold]

It is often heard that home-grown fruits and veggies are a lot tastier than the produce found in the supermarket. Although this question may contain a skeptics element in it, it is so often heard ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

location of embryo development in angiosperms

What floral organ does the development of the embryos of angiosperms occur in? Is it the ovary? The pollen tube grows down through the style and double fertilization occurs and the embryo begins to ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Cationic lipid mediated transfection optimization for 150mm dishes

I need to optimize a transfection protocol to transiently express a plasmid encoding a chimera of eyfp attached to the c term of a Golgi apparatus signaling molecule) in hela cells and hepg2 cells ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Nutrition in Plants

What is the source of nutritional support for developing microspores and microgametophytes, developing megaspores and megagametophytes, and developing angiosperm embryos?
1
vote
1answer
42 views

DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

Can the DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) recognize both DNA and RNA for use them as template? I want to know is it possible if my primers bind to an contaminant RNA and then any DNA ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

how to increase shelf life of yogurt without refrigeration..?

when we make yogurt at home and do not refrigerate it, it will become sour because of conversion of lactose into lactic acid by Lactobacillus bacteria, but this does not happen in case of Nestle's ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How do BCAA's promote faster muscle recovery?

I am aware that ingesting BCAA's prior, during, and after workouts have an effect on muscle recovery due to their difficulty of metabolism. However, how much more efficiently do they speed up recovery ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

What are possible physiological causes for dry, irritated facial skin when failing to shave? [on hold]

I am aware that skin can become dry and irritated AFTER shaving, but what could be a reason for the same result when letting facial hair grow out? It makes sense why shaving would cause the skin to ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

Membrane potential in gram negative bacteria

Does the membrane potential usually quoted for gram negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) refer to the potential across both membranes? - If yes, then does the potential fall more over the inner or outer ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Possible genotypes

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
-2
votes
1answer
43 views

How to make µg/ml concentrations of proteinase-K?

How does one prepare concentrations in the mass/volume (weight/volume) form, for substances like nucleic acids or in this case, proteinase? A detailed example would be helpful. I need to prepare ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

Can encoding of miRNAs in introns not cause dysregulation of gene expression?

For example, consider a gene X which has an intron which encodes a miRNA that downregulates expression of another gene Y. When the gene X is translated, this miRNA will appear as a byproduct of ...
4
votes
1answer
18 views

Are free-nuclear division and endomitosis the same?

As far as I understood it, both are cases of karyokinesis, not followed by cytokinesis.

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