0
votes
0answers
7 views

Why white blood cells and red blood cells destroy?

Why do white blood cells die and what cause them to destroy within a few (20-30) hours? I have an other question also that if red blood cells remain within capillaries, veins and arteries then how do ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

A creature from Mediterranean

I have recently encountered this red thing on one of the beaches of east Sardinia. It was pretty close to the coast (around 20 meters) and has sticked to one of my fins. My question is: how is this ...
44
votes
4answers
2k views

Why do men have nipples?

I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them?
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What spider is this? Is it dangerous to humans?

What is the species? Is it dangerous to humans? Just to be safe, my cousin killed it soon after I took the photo. I chanced upon this beautiful one near our water well. It stood at a height where an ...
1
vote
2answers
22 views

Genome and Proteom

Due to the dynamism of protein expression, a genome conducts to different proteomes, but could we say that a proteome comes from different genomes?
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Can I eat these Oyster mushroom? [migrated]

I just bought some oyster mushrooms. There are a few weird structures on them as you can see on the side of the feet (first two pictures) and the white-ish stuff at the bottom of the feet. What ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Reconstituting genomes of archaic tribes of humans

Will it be logically possible for genome studies to reconstitute the genomes of our local human populations as they were 2000 and 4000 years ago? What is the mathematical precision and science for ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Why do we need to replicate incomplete DNA fragments by PCR from crime scene?

If the DNA from crime scene is damaged ,why would it be helpful to replicate it by PCR(polymerase chain reaction)? I mean even we get billions of that copies ,it is still incomplete,isn't it ? How ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Do fish break a water molecule to absorb oxygen?

How do fish separate oxygen from H20 & consume it? Do they break the water molecule and absorb the oxygen only?
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Does xylitol kill all kinds of bacteria?

Xylitol is known as a bad bacteria killer in human's mouth. But I am curious about one thing. Does xylitol kill all kinds of bacteria regardless of good or bad? If so, Does xylitol kill bad bacteria ...
0
votes
1answer
7 views

Blocking buffer for actin and fetuin-b in western blot

I have been working on western blots for about a month now using actin and fetuin-b primary antibodies to no avail. My background is always high and I only had one good result. I want to know if there ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Would short term increases in oxygen lead to beneficial effects?

After some thinking, I am wondering if having a 30% atmospheric oxygen concentration (or some other concentration) for a short time would increase the regeneration of energy in a body? It seems like ...
11
votes
1answer
165 views

Unilateral damage to vagus nerve

Context: The vagus nerves supply the neck viscera, heart, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. They join around the oesophagus to form the oesophageal plexus. Question: Would damage to one vagus nerve ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

What is the limit of human memory?

I am currently a high school student and have grown curious at what the limitation of memory storage in the brain might be in humans. Information is coded genetically and stored in the brain, but is ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Are wasps attracted to a sting

A little backstory, I was trying to get something that was in a little wooded bit at the back of my garden and stepped on a swarm of wasps was stung 3 times and got out of there but I brought 8 wasps ...
3
votes
5answers
2k views

How did the cardiovascular system evolve?

I am very interested in chemistry and biology and one of my questions is: How has evolution created our bodies or rather the blood, lungs and the heart? Because we can't exist without blood, which ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Are different eye colors indicative of chimerism?

If an animal or person has different colored eyes, does that mean they are a chimera?
3
votes
2answers
84 views

How much genomic variation one usually find within a given bacterial species?

If I find the exact starting position (say 1152471) of the coding sequence of a given gene in the genome of a bacterium, is the genome of the bacterium in general stable enough so that I can expect to ...
6
votes
1answer
94 views

What is this tiny insect?

I took this picture in central Mexico. The insect is about 1mm in size. I found lots of these dead on a desk, so many that at first I thought they were just dust. I assume they came from a plant that ...
0
votes
2answers
21 views

Full Sequence for Plasmid pMG101

I am trying to find the full plasmid sequence for pMG101. I have been looking through other papers that have sequenced this plasmid. The GenBank access numbers I got are the following: AY009372–...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Interpretation of faint band for Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test

After having used the test for research it would appear as if it is very specific. What is one to make of bands that are there but faint? Or what if there are two bands and one is big and bold and the ...
-1
votes
1answer
49 views

How do poikilotherms thrive in a wide range of core temperatures?

What is it about the metabolism of a poikilotherm that enables them to adapt to the surrounding temperature?
2
votes
2answers
56 views

Effect of pH on the hydrolysis of ATP

ATP hydrolizes to ADP and phosphate in a strongly exergonic reaction and is used for energy transfer and short-term storage in cells. ATP is stable inside a cell, so a significant activation energy ...
-2
votes
0answers
30 views
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Finding diploid neanderthal alignment data, looking for ambiguity codes

I'm using Neanderthal alignment data from here: http://www.eva.mpg.de/neandertal/draft-neandertal-genome/data.html Specifically, the .bam files. I would like to find alignments for neanderthal ...
3
votes
0answers
34 views

What is the source of the electrons generated in the Krebs cycle?

In the Krebs cycle where do the hydrogens and electrons that NAD+ and FAD accept come from? It seems that citric acid only loses two hydrogens because it starts out with six hydrogens and becomes ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

How do prions replicate?

Living organisms contain genetic material to replicate, but prions, being protein particles, are able to replicate independently of genetic material. This ability causes diseases associated with ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Crick’s Central Dogma — Counter Cases

I was recently reading about non-coding RNAs being a counter example to Central Dogma of Biology. Can someone add more cases which violate the Central Dogma? Thanks! UPDATE - Reference of lncRNAs ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

How do we know that our genetic similarities to other species is actually due to common ancestry?

I know all about how the fossil record shows more human-like species coming about over time, and how modern testing proves we have genetic similarities with other animals. All that says is we have ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

How far are enhancer regions usually from the promoter ?

I am trying to isolate a promoter region which must include the promoter start site, and an enhancer region in which a protein will bind. However the genetic sequence which this protein binds is ...
-5
votes
0answers
71 views

evolution in such a short time? (history is too short for DNA base mutation + natural selection to result in current vast number of species) [duplicate]

Apart from my being a Christian, I have this strong suspicion that evolution must be wrong. One of the clues is the mismatch between the past time lapse and the current level of evolution. I'm not a ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

This Sequence Data (DNA) has very few Methionin-starts. How is that possible?

I'm working on my first sequencing related project and I'm trying to find proteins with a specific PFAM ID (PF11999). The project is called "MMETSP", I searched the annotations for that ID, identified ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

How can evolution make such complicated beings?

So what I understand is, evolution is a mere mistake in the replication of DNA and this change is sometimes good and sometimes bad. And the other day, in our biology class, we were told the ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

What are tail currents?

This is a voltage clamp on an ion channel. When the voltage is stopped there is a still a current at the end (the tail current). I understand that the gates aren't completely closed because of which ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Do experiences shape actions of insects? Animals? [on hold]

Would an insect behave differently to stimuli depending on what stimuli occurred to them earlier (that only affects them cognitively or their conscience)?
0
votes
0answers
18 views

What would the presence of a hub metabolite in a metabolic pathway signify?

Say I have a metabolic pathway, consisting of multiple metabolites and reactions. On analyzing the pathway I find that among all the metabolite, one metabolite is the hub metabolite (hub metabolite is ...
18
votes
1answer
840 views

Additive genetic variance components from LMER in R

I've set up some dummy data in R which makes 40 genetically related lines, they are all siblings within a line so are genetically related by a factor of ½ thus additive genetic variance should be ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

What's this insect?

Found on my indoor egg plant. I also have aphids, spider mites, and psyllids on it, and am hoping it's a predator like a ladybug larva but the colours are wrong. It's about 6 mm long. Found in New ...
-1
votes
1answer
25 views

Is our genetic evolution driven by what we catch? [on hold]

When an environment changes, a multi celled organism can lose some cells without it producing an equal evolutionary change. But when a single cell organism experiences the same environmental pressure ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

What does NaOH do for the plating of Bacillus subtilis?

A book called Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus called for plating Bacillus subtilis cells on LB-agar plates with the following components: A general-purpose medium containing per litre: ...
3
votes
3answers
96 views

Real-world examples of Darwinian extinction

Darwinian extinction (also known as "evolutionary suicide") refers to processes of selection-driven self-extinction, i.e. the cases where natural selection causes the extinction of an evolving ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
-4
votes
1answer
89 views

Mutations, Death and the theory of Evolution [on hold]

Evolution always made sense to me and I still find it to be true. However, I quite recently found a comment online that gave me some doubts and made me curious on the subject. Although a student of ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

house keeping gene variation under treatment

I am injecting BCG in mice ears to measure the local inflamation response in the infection side, one ear in the same mouse is kept as control by injecting PBS, in the other one, BCG is injected. When ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Typical run-times for local alignments?

Suppose I have a relatively short sequence, e.g. 100 base pairs, which I attempt to align locally with the entire human genome that has approximately 3 billion base pairs. How long would such ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

siRNA to reduce global cholesterol levels

I need to reduce global cholesterol levels significantly while maintaining cell viability. I am working with HEK293 fibroblasts so that shouldn't be a problem. What is the best target for an siRNA ...
1
vote
2answers
116 views

Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What reason that land vertebrate evolve keratin while other animal use chitin

I don't know why there are evolutionary split in material. Why we evolve keratin and lose chitin? What the advantage and disadvantage for each material? Is it because the size or there are other ...
-2
votes
1answer
40 views

Does protein structure depend on phylogeny? [on hold]

Proteins have two basic secondary structure forms - beta strand and alpha helix. Do these depend on the organism or do the two forms exist for every protein? For tertiary and quaternary structure: do ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Why my proteins are migrating like this on SDS-page?

I'm trying to make a SDS-page of total proteins extracted from algae but I'm encountering two problems. First, when I depose my proteins in the wells the sample goes down and then it starts to move up ...

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