9
votes
0answers
120 views

Effect of pupil responses on the electroretinogram

The electroretinogram (ERG) is generally considered to reflect the retinal processing of a light stimulus, typically a photoreceptor response followed by secondary neuronal activity. I am wondering ...
7
votes
0answers
234 views

Additive genetic variance components from LMER in R

I've set up some dummy data in R which makes 40 genetically related lines, they are all siblings within a line so are genetically related by a factor of ½ thus additive genetic variance should be ...
7
votes
0answers
162 views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
6
votes
0answers
26 views

Why can good music raise goosebumps?

Listening to really good music right now, I was wondering why it raises goosebumps. Is there any physiological reason for this reaction to specific wavelengths or something? EDIT: Due sometimes ...
6
votes
0answers
60 views

How to define “Quasifixation” in continuous approximation of finite population?

Background Many models including the famous very first models derived by Sir Ronald Fisher in his early career, assume infinite population size. In an infinite population, an allele can rise in ...
5
votes
0answers
48 views

Non-harmful bacterial invasion of cells

There are bacteria that can enter body cells as parasites. Could it be that some of these are benign, such that the guest will not kill the host cell it lives in (in human)?
5
votes
0answers
84 views

Circular mRNA to produce long proteins

Ribosomes can read mRNA and produce proteins, if we somehow make a circular mRNA for the ribosome to bind onto, it will make infinitely long "proteins", (since ribosomes can make very big proteins, I ...
5
votes
0answers
207 views

Cytoplasmic determinants - protostomes and deuterostomes

Cytoplasmic determinants are spread unevenly in the egg, and so when embryo starts forming (cells start dividing), the determinants are also unequally divided between cell. This unequal distribution ...
5
votes
0answers
301 views

Reason for seeing grid-like patterns when strobing a solid black-white image?

I was trying to do some stimulation for SSVEPs by strobing a solid black square and a solid white square. Weird thing was, I ended up seeing weird grid like patterns that looked like this, always of ...
5
votes
0answers
107 views

Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

Is the six-layer cortex model of the mammalian cortex still the most accepted model?

I've been reading a bit about the different layers of the cerebral cortex and its clear that certainly not every region of the cortex has the same number of layers. Thus, the idea that every region ...
4
votes
0answers
37 views

What is the difference between organelle membranes?

Cells and organelles are contained in lipid bilayers. I'm particularly interested in eukaryotic organelle bilayers and the biophysicochemical differences between them. Many papers assume a ...
4
votes
0answers
38 views

Do people that don't feel pain shiver in the cold?

There are a few diseases that cause an insensitivity to pain. This question asks about the relationship between the cold and pain, which got me thinking: Is shivering a response driven by the ...
4
votes
0answers
43 views

What are parental antagonism & parental conflict?

I've been reading the chapter by Haig et al in The Genetics and Biology of Sexual Conflict. I think this chapter has them quite unclearly defined. Could anyone describe these two phenomenon more ...
4
votes
0answers
28 views

Mechanisms of Gene*sex / Genotype*sex interactions

I'm looking for suggestions of the mechanistic level at which genotype/gene * sex interactions can occur. These give different phenotypes from the same geneotype dependent on the sex they are ...
4
votes
0answers
14 views

Would constant light or fading light be registered as more wakefulness promoting by the Supra Chiasmatic Nucleus?

During the fall and winter season, a number of people are experiencing Seasonal Affective Disorder. One of the way it has traditionally been treated is with a dedicated lightbox - a very high ...
4
votes
0answers
51 views

Can microdialysis be made in Drosophila melanogaster?

I've asked this before in stack overflow's cognitive science community, and someone recommended me to ask here: I've found a couple of studies using microdialysis on insects, but didn't found any in ...
4
votes
0answers
40 views

How was the cama's life expectancy computed?

A cama is a hybrid between a male dromedary camel and a female llama. The first cama was born on January 14, 1998, yet on the Wikipedia page it is said that a cama's life span is 30–40 years. How was ...
4
votes
0answers
43 views

How does the frequency of a visual stimulus affect the steady-state visually evoked potential?

I want to make a project for EEG signal processing, and in my research I found the concept of SSVEP, which means that if you have a stimulus with low frequency applied to the eye, the electrical ...
4
votes
0answers
33 views

How to measure Na/K channel activation at the membrane level?

Assume that there are two different signals occurring on the ECG - during depolarization and repolarization in the standard ECG. I was advised not to use the standard ECG in measuring the exact ...
4
votes
0answers
70 views

Where can I get numerical data for the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) curve?

I'm trying to do some rough figuring to calculating efficiencies of various light sources for growing plants. I'm hampered, however, by the lack of a curve to multiply by the spectrum of light ...
4
votes
0answers
97 views

Why don't birds in flocks fly into each other?

I've seen videos of hundreds of birds flying in the same general direction but creating incredible patterns in the sky seemingly instantaneously! How do they all know in what direction to turn at the ...
4
votes
0answers
103 views

How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
4
votes
0answers
96 views

Does Lucid Dreaming decrease the regenerative effect of sleep?

After watching this SciShow video on sleep, I wonder about lucid dreaming. Specifically: Does lucid dreaming and associated directed agency within Lucid Dreaming decrease the regenerative effect of ...
4
votes
0answers
91 views

At which step apply a detection filter when preprocessing microarray data? (Before/After normalization, batch effects removal)

I am trying to understand what is the best practice when preprocessing microarray data using a detection filter (on scanner p-value). Suppose I have a microarray dataset that I have to normalize with ...
4
votes
0answers
166 views

Genetic expression in interspecific hybrids

Referring to interspecific hybrids, I have the following two questions:- Quoting from wikipedia:- The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility ...
4
votes
0answers
54 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
4
votes
0answers
60 views

Does preservation in ethanol alter leaf litter mass?

I have benthic samples that were collected with an Ekman dredge from some small ponds. The samples contain quite a bit of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM, basically dead leaves). I would ...
4
votes
0answers
102 views

Comparative cost of RNA-seq vs sequencing full length cDNAs

I am in the process of assembling and annotating the genome of a non-model organism, using almost exclusively short read (paired-end Illumina) data. Throughput is one obvious benefit of these data ...
4
votes
0answers
71 views

What is the frequency of double-hets between parent and child?

Say both parent and child are genotyped for all SNPs. In this setup we are only looking at variant positions between one parent and child - so neither parent nor child are homozygous reference (no ...
4
votes
0answers
70 views

effect of background selection on promoter regions compared to distant enhancers?

Has anyone looked at the effect of background selection on the levels of conservation of promoter regions compared to distant enhancers? Do promoter regions have a higher conservation due to ...
4
votes
0answers
29 views

What metabolically happens when an egg fuses with the nucleus of a somatic cell

In stem cell biology, it is recognized that embryonic stem cells are transcriptionally inactive for the first 3 days of development. However, during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus is ...
4
votes
0answers
107 views

Dimensionless number for blood volume

Comments from the question How is the blood volume of a living organism measured without killing it? by @Nico discussed that the time of blood recirculation scales with the size of the organism. I was ...
4
votes
0answers
44 views

Serological assays not detecting native proteins

Is there anyone out there who has done much work with serological assays? We have antiserum for a manufactured viral protein but no luck so far getting it to detect native protein (unless today's ...
4
votes
0answers
112 views

If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
3
votes
0answers
21 views

How we share pain?

When somebody else tells me about his or her itching or pain in some specific body part I sometimes begin to feel similar feelings. I can think of about three explanations: I feel pain all over my ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

What's the (or some of the) minimum(s) amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide needed by plants?

We currently have a problem of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. But assuming we find a way to carbon sink it, what is the minimum CO2 we need to leave in the atmosphere to provide a source for ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Why do most organisms have negative supercoiled DNA?

It has been observed that in nature most organisms have negative supercoiled DNA and that few organisms have positive supercoiled DNA. Some of the organisms that have the positive supercoiled DNA live ...
3
votes
0answers
7 views

how can bats achieve good resolution with wide beams?

I have been reading about the echolocation system in bats. papers state that bats tend to produce a sonar beam that has a beam angle (-3db) of about 30-40 degrees. This would be considered a wide beam ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Normal ECG/EKG Measurement?

I'm getting started using ECG using a 3 lead system by iWorx. I have place the leads on my two wrists and the ground on my ankle and have recorded some data into the provided LabScribe 3 software ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

How close to Earth's core can organisms live?

We don't to know much about organisms living deep below the Earth's crust. Recently a team led by S. Giovanni discovered some microbes 300 m below the ocean floor. The microbes were found to be a ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

Can we artificially increase human growth using HGH?

Robert Pershing Wadlow was a man who lived in the early-mid 1900s and had hyperplasia of his pituitary gland, which caused him over-produce human growth hormone (HGH) and grow to nearly 9 feet ...
3
votes
0answers
26 views

How can I reduce the background gradient in phase contrast microscopy?

I'm looking for ways to set up a phase contrast microscope to reduce the brightness gradient that appears across the background of my images. I use phase contrast to find the outlines of cells in my ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Average dimensions of the adult human back

I am wondering if anyone can point me to (a scientific source that provides) the estimates of the dimensions of the human back? I am specifically interested in the dimensions (length * width, or ...
3
votes
0answers
38 views

Why aren't circadian rhythms exactly 24 hours long?

Most organisms exhibit circadian rhythms that have a periodicity of about, but not exactly 24 hours. Why is this? And to what extent can variation in periodicity in circadian rhythms among the ...
3
votes
0answers
36 views

Can dolphins actually communicate linguistically?

Humans use "language." By language, I mean the thing I am using right now to talk to you. I know dolphins and orcas have very complex communication systems and also seem to process linguistic and ...
2
votes
0answers
15 views

protein with highest affinity to lactose

I was wondering: What is the protein with the highest affinity to lactose ? Are there some databases with values for affinity ? Thanks in advance
1
vote
0answers
7 views

How would i describe a Cladogram as paragraph?

I have this paragraph that i have halfway finished, but i do not know what to put in the spaces. A Cladogram is a branching diagram that represents the proposed phylogeny or evolution of a species ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

dsRNA and immune response

If there is dsRNA in the cell (long enough), will it always bring immune response? What type of immune response it will be? Killing the cell if it has some amounts of dsRNA?
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

Does mitosis only create somatic cells? Doesn't it also create germ cells?

If mitosis doesn't create germ cells, then where do the germ cells that undergo meiosis come from?

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