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8

Small molecules do not have antigenic properties but they can elicit immune response by binding to a "carrier" protein. The small molecule is called a Hapten. An epitope forms at the protein-hapten binding interface. Nickel acts like a hapten and elicits immune response by binding to proteins like transferrin, albumin etc. Other metals also cause ...


7

No, they are of course not there to cause allergies. It is thought (although not directly proven in human) that IgE is important to fight parasites and worms. They bind to antigens from the parasites, which leads to the secretion of histamines. This causes a local immune reaction (which also is a problem in allergies) which is helpful to fight the parasites. ...


5

At one of my previous companies that raised antibodies to proteins and post-translational modifications, we found that 6-8 amino acids was generally the smallest peptide length required for an epitope. Anything much smaller than that won't induce the cross-linking or conformational changes required for signal transduction and an allergic response. As WYSIWYG ...


4

Ara H 1, Ara H 2, and Ara H 3 are the three main peanut allergies. AH1 and AH2 are typically higher-acuity anaphylactic type reactions. The molecular cause for this is that some Immunoglobulin E develop a serum sensitivity and bind directly to vicilin and conglutin (the active proteins in AH1 and AH2). There are actually 7 or 8 Ara H complexes, but it is ...


2

Small or relatively small amounts of the antigen can cause an allergy, when you have IgE antibodies which fit to this antigen. They will then cause a local immune reaction and cause the secretion of histamine. For the desensitation therapy large amounts of antigen are given (which is not without risk). The mechanism behind this therapy is not completely ...


2

Pet allergy is an allergic reaction to proteins found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in saliva, urine, mucous, and hair roots and in the dander sloughed from the animals' skin. Thus, the widespread idea that "hypoallergenic pets" are those that have less hair or shed less is a myth. Most often, pet allergy is triggered by ...


2

Rhinitis is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. Common symptoms of rhinitis are a stuffy nose, runny nose, and post-nasal drip. The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and dander [1]. Many questions regarding sublingual immunization still remain to ...


2

But are there ways to tell the body that this allergy is safe and there is no need to amount a response to it? Yes, that's what allergy shots (Exposure Therapy) does. Exposure Therapy is an effective, albeit sometimes imperfect, method of letting the body know that a substance is common and that it shouldn't mount a response to it. Over time the body ...


2

Whilst it is true that animal cells are more like our own, I'm not sure that would be the reason for non-allergic responses. If we take xenografts (transplanting pig organs for example) we see a profound response. The latter theory of it having a higher mortality is more closer to the truth. Typically we observe that things we are given from childhood ...



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