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Bacteria and plants are able to synthesize all amino acids, as they are capable of nitrogen fixation. If animals eat plants, they get the essential amino acids needed for their proteins. Humans get the essential amino acids by eating these animals or directly by consuming plants. So yes, it is a never-ending cycle of passing.


From the mention of “aromatic residues” in the figure legend (in a different context) I assume Ar stands for aromatic residues. Ar is certainly not an abbreviation for arginine. I would guess that [H/+] means either histidine or any positively-charged residue. I think that the authors of the paper should have pointed this out in the figure legend, and that ...


Ar means aromatic and + means positively charged residues. However, this is not a standard code (as of now). From the same paper: Sequences closely matching these optimal binding motifs, R-X-[Ar/S]-[+]-pS-[LEAM]-P and R-[S/Ar]-[+]-pS-[LEAM]-P, denoted as mode 1 and mode 2 consensus sequences, were found to be present in many known 14-3-3 ligands ( Yaffe ...


It depends how you define an acid. For what it‘s worth, the chemical definition Google presents when I search is “a molecule or other species which can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions”. On that basis the serine residue in the catalytic triad is acting as a weakly ionizing acid. Of course in aqueous solution a free serine hydroxyl ...

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