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There are two general points that should be appreciated in relation to this question: Your statement that mitochondria “have prokaryotic ribosomes” is a misleading simplification. Although mitochondria and plastids are thought to be derived from eubacteria — and their ribosomes have some similarities in antibiotic sensitivity — the structures of their ...


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The endosymbiotic theory states that eukaryotic mitochondria were once freely-living bacteria that somehow migrated into the cell and began a symbiotic relationship. However, just because the mitochondria within human cells have prokaryotic origins, these are distant relationships that are exceedingly old. The ribosomes of current day bacteria (on which ...


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We take antibiotics when our own immune system is insufficient to control infections. We do make antibiotics as localized defence systems Defensins and cathelicidins belong to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), called also the natural antibiotics. They are found in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, also are synthesized in plants. These molecules were described in ...


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I assume from your question (and your pseudonym) that you are confused by terminology. Our adaptive immune system does not make antibiotics, it makes antibodies. Antibiotics are small molecules that interfere with bacterial metabolism. Antibodies are proteins that recognise foreign macromolecules. (You could regard both as “anti-bacterials” — perhaps this is ...


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Since people and animals routinely get sick, it is obvious that our immune system (which includes but isn't limited to antibodies) doesn't always protect against pathogens. There are many reasons for this, far too many to summarize here, but one common reason is that it takes several days for the adaptive part of the immune system (which includes antibodies,...



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