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It is an interesting question. The reason for why new immune responses can be launched but the memory of old ones are not deleted is based on the concept of irreversibility of certain chemical reactions. Launching an immune response involves clonal expansion of cells expressing the epitope sensors such as the immunoglobins and T-cell receptors, accompanied ...


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Yes, here is an article on it: "The role of X-chromosome inactivation in female predisposition to autoimmunity" Below see the method and results summarised. Using a DNA methylation assay, we have examined the X-chromosome inactivation patterns in peripheral blood from normal females (n = 30), female patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases (n ...


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This question has two answers: The difference was first described in 1936 by Harold Percival Himsworth, which described it in this article. At this time it was established that there are two forms of Diabetes, one sensitive to insuline while the other is not. The terms Diabetes type 1 and 2 where established somewhere between 1974 and 1976, for details see ...


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Immunosuppression is not used in cancer, in fact it is typically harmful unless of course the cancer is a immune or white blood cell cancer where suppressing their growth may be helpful. What you are perhaps alluding to is that an adverse effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy used in the medical treatment of cancer can cause immunosuppression. Immunosuppression ...


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It looks moderately muddled, but perhaps. This paper1 is a good place to start; it's free and the intro lists a number of more recent studies. That study found a connection to lifetime reproductive success in sticklebacks (a fish) with intermediate MHC diversity. This 2007 study in mice2 is a particularly nice one, dealing with a inbred line outbred to ...


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EDITS - I appreciate the comments and have incorporated them here. Thanks to @Superbest and @user22406 for raising them. I hope this makes a better answer for the community. Under normal circumstances, genomic (self) or mtDNA released into your cell or body cause absolutely no (known) problems. I'll explain why that is, how the body can detect ...


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Too long for a comment: Because we don't know how to do this. The immune system is an extremely complex and highly regulated function of the human body and it is not easy to shut down single pieces of it without affecting the whole rest. We can completely block immune responses (more or less), which is beneficial for people who got a transplant. These ...


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Cancer is uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. This is caused by mutations in a cell which causes a cell to divide more frequently and the lack of control by intracellular AND extracellular mechanisms. The extracellular mechanisms include growth inhibition by hormones, local factors, contact and also the immune system. These cancerous cells could be ...


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Adalimumab is an antibody that binds to tumor necrosis factor alpha. Antibodies have high-affinity binding sites for their antigen, and for a small antigen such as TNF-alpha, would bind to it and prevent it from binding to its target receptors. Antibodies, like all proteins, degrade after a certain period of time and are removed from circulation, and since ...


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They do not, at least not normally or noticeably. MHC I occurs on all nucleated cells, and red blood cells do not have nuclei. If they did indeed have MHC on them, blood transfusions would be as successful and as tricky as organ donation. There are reports of MHC detection on red blood cells, but the amount is orders of magnitude smaller than elsewhere, ...


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I often have to reiterate this question in my head to clarify to myself how it works, though I tend to take an approach that asks more: What is different between a part of the body and something foreign which triggers an immune response? Here is the part that concerns B and T cells: The adaptive immune system (B and T cells) is based on random genetic ...


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Broad question. Summary: The innate immune system processes everything. When it senses that something is dangerous it tells the adaptive immune system, that is T and B cells, that this thing I'm holding is dangerous (via coreceptors and cytokines). T and B cells that are specific for this dangerous protein (or sometimes non-protein) are activated. ...


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Awesome question! The immune system detects the presence of non-self using MHC and T cells and the lack of self using NK cells. The placenta first of all doesn't display MHC so T cells can't detect it, and expresses NK inhibitory receptors which stop NK cells killing it. Furthermore, the immune system isn't able to get to the foetus so it isn't able to ...



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