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"There are antibiotics which contain carbohydrates, such as Gentamycin and Streptomycin (the aminoglycosides). These must be the antibiotics that could account for this phenomenon." My conjecture that the carbohydrate moities contained within aminoglycosides account for the high energy is incorrect. Aminoglycosides are NEVER metabolized by the body, they ...


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From the first reference: The first issue to get settled is that the shape of a bacterium has biological relevance. One argument favoring this assertion is that even though bacteria have a wide variety of shapes, any one genus typically exhibits a limited subset of morphologies, hinting that, with a universe of shapes to choose from, individual bacteria ...


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This is a interesting question and for a long time it was thought that they do not age. In the meantime there are some new papers which say that bacteria do indeed age. Aging can be defined as the accumulation of non-genetic damages (for example oxidative damage to proteins) over time. If too much of these damages are accumulated, the cell will eventually ...


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Here are my thoughts on this, taking your example, oregano oil. The active anti-microbial ingredient in this essential oil is carvacrol. The WP article states that it probably acts by disruption of the membrane. There appear to be no examples of carvacrol resistance, as suggested by your question. In mammals the compound is detoxified in the liver via ...


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Apoptosis and necrosis are only two ways by which eukaryote death is achieved. Certainly there are other ways. Say, if a tissue or organism burns, death is achieved before any nuclear changes, cell swelling or shrinking. Same thing goes with bacteria. Death is the generic term. If you have more details, you can be more specific. In laboratories, cells die ...


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The word bacteriocidal is commonly used when describing agents that kill them, as opposed to agents that slow their growth which are said to be bacteriostatic.


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Death is appropriate. Using this word to describe both unicellular and multicellular organisms places them in the same hierarchy. This hierarchy is the domain of life. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have unicellular and multicellular species. If you choose another word for death I would suggest not using it exclusively for bacteria. If a reader finds ...


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The word infect is an encapsulation of several activities: transcription, translation, viral entry, budding, lysis, etc. When you ask if a eukaryotic virus (influenza, ebola) can infect a prokarytoic cell (bacteria) you are asking if these viruses can do the same activities. The answer is no. Translation is mediated by ribosomes, which are different in ...


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I'm not so sure about my answer. But I think "bacteriophage" is a polyphyletic name of which was defined by the ability of infecting bacteria, but not defined by the genetic, evolutionary, or morphological relationships. It seems that if a species (or a taxon in a higher taxonomic level) of virus is infectious to bacteria, it will be classified as a member ...


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I assume you are asking if E. coli can survive extreme pH conditions and according to this study E. coli K-12 W3110 survives at pH 1.2 – pH 2.0 under low oxygen. This study cultured different strans overnight and exposed to pH 2.0 for 2 hours before diluting 1:80,000 and 1:400,000, under anoxic and aerated conditions. Dilutions where then plated allowing ...


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Fertilizer on tomatoes wouldn't make sense. Tomatoes are up above the soil, and fertilizer is usually applied to the soil before the plants sprout, but I've never seen an industrial tomato farm, so maybe they do spray fertilizer afterwards, but I would think pesticides or herbicides would be more likely. Fertilizer on carrots would make more sense, since ...


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An addition to the Alan's answer: some sort of selection for more resistant genotypes inevitably did take place and left distinct footprints in the human populations.


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The identification of the Black Death with plague is now fairly well-established - see this paper (open access) in which PCR and protein detection were used to detect the presence of Yersina pestis in human skeletons from plague-related mass graves across Europe. Outbreaks of plague do occur in rural environments, see this WHO page for some details. The WHO ...


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This question got me thinking about what are the metabolic enzymes that take oxygen up in E coli. I searched the metacyc database for reactions that consume molecular oxygen and there are only 3 that take in oxygen and one that produces oxygen. All three consumers of oxygen in E coli are the oxidation of ubiquinone by at two sites in cytochrome bcl or by ...


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The plasma membrane is quite permeable to oxygen and thus oxygen enters the cell simply by diffusion. Reactive oxygen species can be reduced enzymatically in aerobic organisms. Obligate anaerobes lack or don't produce sufficient quantities of these enzymes. An organism that doesn't use oxygen for metabolism but is also not relatively harmed by it can be ...


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The article and published work here and here respectively, reveals that E. coli replication is close to thermodynamic limits of efficiency having modelled this process using mathematical equations. However an interesting article and published work here and here, respectively reports a bacteria (homologous to Thermobrachium celere and Caloramator indicus, ...



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