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6

Although this seems to be a simple question on the exterior, the answer is going to be confusing and unclear because we still don't know the answer exactly. Short answer - MACs are bactericidal not because of water gushing in. It is due to other mechanisms effected by damage to membrane integrity. Long answer First of all, I am assuming you already know ...


5

When you talk about organisms like fungi and bacteria which can have a dormant form, and viruses, "dead" becomes somewhat harder to define. In fact, it has not been definitively defined for bacteria. I would have guessed "when they are permanently unable to reproduce", but I may be wrong. From one source[1]: The observed coordinated gene expression ...


2

This answer is a reply to the question asked in the comment of my answer given on 13th July 2016. The comment was, " Nice answer, I gather that bacteria would enter more easily, what about viruses?" In my answer on 13th July 2016, I used the term "microorganisms" - this includes both bacteria and viruses. So the answer provided there can also be applied to ...


5

Our epidermis is the first line defence against natural infections; it is also a part of the innate immune system. This is due to it contains a layer of dead cells that separates the living cells of the deeper layers of epidermis and dermis from the environment. This part of the epidermis is avascular and so pathogens can not easily enter into the ...


0

The dermis provides some protection, and if it is removed the danger of deep tissue infection becomes extremely high. However, the epidermis provides an additional and important layer of antimicrobial protection. That is why first and second degree burns, opened blisters, and scrapes should be kept clean and isolated from the environment with bandages, and ...


2

As anongoodnurse has mentioned in the comments, an incomplete course can allow weakly resistant stains to expand their population. As you mentioned, the antibiotic does not cause the bacteria to mutate but it kills all strains that do not carry the mutation that provides the resistance. This mutation arises randomly (in certain cases it can be acquired by ...


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H.pylori is a bacteria that is a cause for Peptic ulcer disease of human being. It helps to create more acidic product and causes ulcer. But human body is naturally protected to H.pylore, but excess stress,irregular life style etc helps H.pylori to growth and causes ulcer. Simple measure can escape you from this infection. 1. Intake enough water 2. Maintain ...


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As a former icu nurse and also a molecular biologist who specialized in genes for antibiotic biosynthesis I can tell you theory is world's apart from practicality. New antibiotics are least tested agents and very expensive, often the patient suffers more from the antibiotics side effects than they do from the infection. Monotherapy is basically old hat now, ...


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Most resistance is acquired by horizontal transfer by various means Conjugation is the sexual transfer Transduction is transfer by viruses that integrate into the genome then when they are activated, they carry bits of the genome attached to their own to a new host Transformation is the uptake of naked plasmid DNA into a new host Transfection is similar ...


1

You run the risk of the killed cells suddenly releasing huge quantities of cytokines. If this occurs you may cause spike in capillary permeability and basically create massive sepsis. The bacteria will have to be killed SLOWLY to prevent them spilling their contents into the circulatory system. But, I have always believed phages could be engineered to ...


1

It depends on the kind of antibiotic. Some antibiotic are bacteriostatic i.e. they primarily stop the growth while some are bactericidal i.e. they kill the living bacterial cells. Some antibiotics can have mixed effects. Bacteriostatic antibiotics would not be very efficient in eliminating a colony. Apart from the mechanism of action, there can be other ...



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