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I believe there is. As you can see in the image below, strictly anaerobic bacteria can survive in liquid medium in test tubes, herefore they will migrate to the bodem of the medium to avoid Oxygen. Also you can see that microaerophiles, which require an oxygen percentage of approximately 2-10% (versus approximately 20% in normal air), will be able to survive ...


2

According to wikipedia : Heterocysts are specialized, pale-yellow,thick-walled cells with disputed function nitrogen-fixing formed during nitrogen starvation by some filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc punctiforme... Thus by definition these are not within the cells, but differentiated cells themselves. This is a good paper that can give you ...


1

Virulence factors of V cholerae is regulated by a hierarchical regulatory system. The proteins you listed in your question are part of this system. In this paper it is said that the actual activation of TCP and CT is done by ToxT- thus this could be your "key" protein. I'd also like to note that just because these are two different genes does not necessarily ...


1

If you're looking at evolutionary timescales, then the only available source of information is the target organism's genome sequence. At least some of the methods of horizontal gene transfer you mention leave a distinctive signature in the genome. For example, retrovirus particles that have become incorporated into the human genome are easily identified by ...


3

Conjugation occurs between cells of the same species too. For this to occur cell have to be close to each other. Now, if you have an isolated population of bacteria that never gets in contact with an F+ bacteria then this population would stay F-. Also not all conjugation events are successful, mechanical perturbations can disrupt the pilus through which ...



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