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Babies are bacteria-free at birth. The meconium (the first stool) contains no bacteria if secured early enough. Meconium is a sterile mucilaginous material that accumulates in the fetal intestine and is expelled soon after birth. It contains secretions of intestinal glands, gut constituents (proteins, bile acids, fatty acids, and steroids), and ...


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Theoretically there are two very basic things to consider in judging virulence for the secretion systems: a) Can it secrete into any human cell? (If not, chances of being virulent are smaller, but not zero as whatever is secreted in the environment of a cell could also be harmful for the cell.) b) Does it secrete some agent (protein, RNA, molecule), which ...


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I think you cannot find a better answer then the following review: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v13/n6/full/nrmicro3456.html It was published in 2015, and it gives a good overview about the secretion systems. Anyway, T6SS can also be virulent. Vibrio cholerae can use an effector of this SS to cross-link actin in the host cell and modify its ...


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You do not need to merge anything. Photosynthesis already includes the electron transport across the inner membrane of the chloroplast (in case of plants) or across the bacterial membrane (in case of bacteria), creating voltage difference between inner and outer side. The only problem, this voltage is relatively difficult to take away.


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What you're describing is a phototrophic biofilm microbial fuel cell! They're pretty neat. Essentially the sun powers the bacteria and the bacteria in the anaerobic side passes electrons through the graphite electrode to use oxygen at the cathode. There's another explanation here. You could also "unfold" cyanobacteria and layer them and you'd probably get ...


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Our Unique Microbial Identity (Gilbert 2015) suggests that the gut microbiome is shaped and stablized during infancy and tends to restore equilibrium if it is disturbed later in life. Antibiotics temporarily change the composition of the gut microbiome (by suppressing the growth of certain groups of bacteria more than others), but it tends to drift back to ...


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Short answer Toxicity of salt depends on contact time. 50 g NaCl per liter kills nearly all bacteria in 2 days. 100 g NaCl/L may do a quite thorough job in 30 minutes. Background Body odor is caused by bacteria that feed on the fluids produced by the apocrine glands, mainly present under the arm pits and other areas with abundant hair follicles. Bacteria in ...



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