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45

A quick search on Web of Science yields "Polyphasic Wake/Sleep Episodes in the Fire Ant, Solenopsis Invicta" (Cassill et al., 2009, @Mike Taylor found an accessable copy here) as one of the first hits. The main points from the abstract: Yes, ants sleep. indicators of deep sleep: ants are non-responsive to contact by other ants and antennae are folded ...


30

The short answer is apparently yes. Studies on sleep in insects date back to papers published by Phil and Nellie Rau in 1916 and 1938. Hussaini et al. (2003) showed that sleep does affect memory formation in honey bees. They showed that retention of extinction learning is significantly reduced in bees that were sleep-deprived. More about sleep in honeybees ...


9

The whole point about your question is to define what is an "evolved trait"? The concept of "evolved trait" does not exist in evolutionary biology. Here are various definitions I can think of that could apply to the expression "evolved traits". Heritable Traits Does evolved traits mean heritable traits? A trait may be heritable or not. See for example my ...


9

As the previous answers clarify, all organisms have heritable traits that may be manipulated through selective breeding. It is the pragmatics that can be prohibitively challenging. From an (zoo)archaeological point of view, few animals have actually been domesticated, and only recently in our species' history. The dog is an unusual case, perhaps domesticated ...


6

In the world of physics, you can distinguish between random motion (e.g. thermal Brownian walk) and directed motion (called ballistic: think of a cannon ball) by studying the mean square displacement of the object: you'll be able to fit this displacement as a function of time by a linear law if it is random, and by a quadratic one if it is directed. ...


5

Rumor has it that some moles, such as the star nosed mole, have electroreceptors in their nose. In 1993, Gould and colleagues proposed that the star-like proboscis had electroreceptors and that the mole was therefore able to sense the electrical field of its prey[24] prior to mechanical inspection by its appendages. Through behavioral experiments, they ...


4

That is a threat face. Barbary macaque threat faces often appear with a brow raise, lowered head, and an o-shaped mouth, sometimes with and sometimes without a vocalization. Given the context you described it is not surprising the girl received a threat. *Based on personal research experience


4

It looks like it is trying too threat. Source: Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)


4

is this guess proven or affirmed by science? It is a debated topic. Such altruistic behaviors (toward non-kin) are extremely rare evolutionarily, with some theorists even proposing that they are uniquely human [1]. Experimental evidence indicates that human altruism is a powerful force and is unique in the animal world. [...] Current gene-based ...


4

I believe it is a type of fission-fusion society or even some hybrid with agent based modeling. In ethology, a fission–fusion society is one in which the size and composition of the social group change as time passes and animals move throughout the environment; animals merge (fusion)—e.g. sleeping in one place—or split (fission)—e.g. foraging in small ...


4

Probably not. An immediate defense against predators requires an immediate response. The sting of Hymenoptera like the wasps and bees has an immediately painful reaction. In addition, in the eusocial (colony-forming) species, multiple individuals typically contribute to defense of their nest. One sting may not deter a predator or invader but dozens or ...


4

I couldn't find any information about ants starving in times of plenty, most likely since it's difficult to determine whether an ant colony is "letting" certain members starve or whether the ants have just died for whatever reason. To your second question, though, yes! This paper, The Effect of Colony Size and Starvation on Food Flow in the Fire Ant by ...


4

From this paper about black-headed gulls responding to a hedgehog: The gull might peck the intruder, or strike it with its feet. Pecks were mostly directed at the hedgehog's head and might be delivered after a horizontal approach with the wings partly lifted. Although not directed at the eyes specifically, they observed the birds directing attacks ...


3

The order of settling depends on the resource availability in different patches (in your case the difference between high and low quality habitat), but generally speaking, the pattern you observe conforms to the ideal free distribution. The key factor in the ideal free distribution is that habitat patches are filled according to the current resource ...


3

It's not entirely clear what you're asking. If you're asking whether domestic animals are more friendly to humans than wild animals, the answer is generally yes. However, this does not make them "more evolved". Domestic and wild animals are ultimately derived from a shared common ancestor, so they have been evolving for an equal period of time. In ...


3

Domestication has little, if anything, to do with intelligence. From biologist Jared Diamond, the 6 criteria for domestication are as follows: Flexible diet – Creatures that are willing to consume a wide variety of food sources and can live off less cumulative food from the food pyramid (such as corn or wheat), particularly food that is not utilized ...


3

I will focus my answer on the evolution of orb web spiders (Fig. 1), because arachnids, like insects, are relatively non-complex creatures with an obvious systematic behavior (the weaving of highly symmetric, repeating structures). Hence I reasoned this would be a good approach of investigating the answer to this question. The orb-weavers (Orbiculariae, an ...


3

This is a good question. This type of behavior -- pecking at a branch, wiping the side of the beak on a branch, pulling off twigs and dropping them, or knocking off pieces of bark -- is quite common among many corvid species, particularly when they are interrupted by something or someone that they might consider a threat. This includes not only potential ...


2

As everybody, I don't fully understand your question. Can you please add your definition of domestication? Would you consider domestication as soon as human can select for heritable traits? If yes, then the question may be split in two: Do all animal populations have heritable traits? Yes! But Depending on what kind of traits you want to consider no ...


2

This stuff is hard-wired into either the organism's nervous system, or endocrine signalling pathways (e.g., hormones), or possibly a combination of those two mechanisms. In that sense, yes it is encoded in the genome, but not in a language that we can understand or interpret yet. Also, don't overlook all of the macromolecules that the female provides to the ...


2

Don't know whether it was ever investigated, but I'm pretty sure, that frogs can in principle swim upside down (e.g. when escaping from predator), but they normally do not do it. One example of alternative swimming styles in animals is provided by some munnopsidid isopod crustaceans. Several genera are pelagic and have very elongated forelegs equipped with ...


1

I will assume that you are talking about Mallards, although other wildfowl are likely to exhibit similar behaviors. Mallards aren't actually solitary during the summer, instead they form breeding pairs. They form groups (sords) in the winter to migrate and for protection while moulting. ...


1

"More intelligent" as more capable of learning Domesticated varieties of animals generally aren't "smarter" as per objective measurements of brain power, however, I'd argue that they would feel smarter for us because they have different patterns of learning. For most living beings, there is a general shift of the "explore vs exploit" behavior balance as ...


1

I can suggest three books, none of them cover all those aspects, though: 1) The Foundations of Ethology, Konrad Lorenz. The best introduction I know for the field of ethology. Lorenz is called by some "the father of ethology". 2) Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Edward Wilson. The deepest study of animal societies I know of. 3) Evolutionary Ecology, Eric ...


1

Mimicry, in biology, phenomenon characterized by the superficial resemblance of two or more organisms that are not closely related taxonomically. This resemblance confers an advantage—such as protection from predation—upon one or both organisms through some form of “information flow” that passes between the organisms and the animate agent of selection. This ...


1

It's got to be because optical mirrors are relatively easy to produce and field, and it's obvious that it presents a duplicate. I would be interested in designs for a 'sound mirror' that doesn't just look like a wall under echolocation. Maybe a system to dynamically reproduce a 'sound hologram' of the bat? A 'scent mirror' would be really difficult to ...


1

Here are my thoughts. An animal does not chose to emit some light while they have more control over other signals they emit and may likely just not emit it. So it would not be an easy trait to study. More importantly, animals (almost) always receive feedback for signals they emit. When a dog barks, it can hear itself! Animals are not used to receive ...


1

Predators are very good at spotting moving targets, as movements will easily stand out from inanimate objects and vegetation. Most prey will prefer to hide or just run if they are spotted by predators. But the chameleons prefer to blend in with the vegetation instead. This gives them the advantage that they may move in plain sight, and still not be ...


1

Yes, creatures can swim different ways. If you drop a frog into water while it is in the ventral up position, it will indeed swim upside down to escape before righting itself, which occurs by rotating while swimming. If the water is too shallow, it will flop and flip before jumping away. Swimming on the surface ventral side up is kind of silly for a frog ...


1

As 3cat already stated, the terms actually refer to the pollinators. While solitary and social describe the behavioural traits (see this wikipedia article), diploid and haplodiploid give information about the chromosome number of the pollinators (see here and here). The descriptions in the article depict different combinations of both characteristics.



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