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41

A quick search on Web of Science yields "Polyphasic Wake/Sleep Episodes in the Fire Ant, Solenopsis Invicta" (Cassill et al., 2009, @Mike Taylor found an accessable copy here) as one of the first hits. The main points from the abstract: Yes, ants sleep. indicators of deep sleep: ants are non-responsive to contact by other ants and antennae are folded ...


29

The short answer is apparently yes. Studies on sleep in insects date back to papers published by Phil and Nellie Rau in 1916 and 1938. Hussaini et al. (2003) showed that sleep does affect memory formation in honey bees. They showed that retention of extinction learning is significantly reduced in bees that were sleep-deprived. More about sleep in honeybees ...


7

Disclaimer: I'm an infectious disease modeler, and generally pretty skeptical of "We modeled X like an outbreak!" claims, because many are just an exercise in curve fitting. Given that, the answer is both "Yes" and "No". "No": Murder as an act really isn't transmissible, and if its not transmissible, it can't be modeled as an infectious disease. "Yes": It ...


7

Flies use any object they can find as a landmark. The flies patrol well-defined airspaces underneath landmarks like lampshades. ... Male flies approach a landmark from below and, in the absence of other flies, settle to patrol an airspace close to the landmark. A second male approaching the same landmark chases, or is chased away by, the patrolling fly ...


6

In the world of physics, you can distinguish between random motion (e.g. thermal Brownian walk) and directed motion (called ballistic: think of a cannon ball) by studying the mean square displacement of the object: you'll be able to fit this displacement as a function of time by a linear law if it is random, and by a quadratic one if it is directed. ...


4

What do you call an "evolved trait"? To my knowledge, the concept of "evolved trait" does not exist in evolutionary biology. Here are various definitions I can think of that could apply to the expression "evolved traits". Heritable Traits Does evolved traits mean heritable traits? A trait may be heritable or not. See for example my answer to this post to ...


4

Probably not. An immediate defense against predators requires an immediate response. The sting of Hymenoptera like the wasps and bees has an immediately painful reaction. In addition, in the eusocial (colony-forming) species, multiple individuals typically contribute to defense of their nest. One sting may not deter a predator or invader but dozens or ...


4

That is a threat face. Barbary macaque threat faces often appear with a brow raise, lowered head, and an o-shaped mouth, sometimes with and sometimes without a vocalization. Given the context you described it is not surprising the girl received a threat. *Based on personal research experience


4

It looks like it is trying too threat. Source: Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)


3

is this guess proven or affirmed by science? It is a debated topic. Such altruistic behaviors (toward non-kin) are extremely rare evolutionarily, with some theorists even proposing that they are uniquely human [1]. Experimental evidence indicates that human altruism is a powerful force and is unique in the animal world. [...] Current gene-based ...


3

As the previous answers clarify, all organisms have heritable traits that may be manipulated through selective breeding. It is the pragmatics that can be prohibitively challenging. From an (zoo)archaeological point of view, few animals have actually been domesticated, and only recently in our species' history. The dog is an unusual case, perhaps domesticated ...


3

This is a hard question to respond to. Many things might make someone grumpy. There are also individual temperaments, making grumpy hard to quantify - a Grumpy to one person might barely be a blip on another individual's scale. Hormones like cortisol reflect stress, and can make people in general irritable, but I doubt any one combination of hormones ...


2

Of course. As you quoted from Wikipedia: It is commonly associated with tiredness, stress, overwork, lack of stimulation and boredom. Insomniacs, because they can't get a good sleep, are more tired and stressed than the others.


2

As everybody, I don't fully understand your question. Can you please add your definition of domestication? Would you consider domestication as soon as human can select for heritable traits? If yes, then the question may be split in two: Do all animal populations have heritable traits? Yes! But Depending on what kind of traits you want to consider no ...


2

I understand the question as "can you get any animal to have heritable traits selected by humans?" This definition of domestication implies that a population of animals can be bred for a sufficiently long period of time, so that humans can select hereditary traits that fit their needs. Humans could provide selective pressure that creates a new variety with ...


2

Music and Emotions The most difficult problem in answering the question of how music creates emotions is likely to be the fact that assignments of musical elements and emotions can never be defined clearly. The solution of this problem is the Theory of Musical Equilibration. It says that music can't convey any emotion at all, but merely volitional ...


2

It's not entirely clear what you're asking. If you're asking whether domestic animals are more friendly to humans than wild animals, the answer is generally yes. However, this does not make them "more evolved". Domestic and wild animals are ultimately derived from a shared common ancestor, so they have been evolving for an equal period of time. In ...


2

Domestication has little, if anything, to do with intelligence. From biologist Jared Diamond, the 6 criteria for domestication are as follows: Flexible diet – Creatures that are willing to consume a wide variety of food sources and can live off less cumulative food from the food pyramid (such as corn or wheat), particularly food that is not utilized ...


2

Don't know whether it was ever investigated, but I'm pretty sure, that frogs can in principle swim upside down (e.g. when escaping from predator), but they normally do not do it. One example of alternative swimming styles in animals is provided by some munnopsidid isopod crustaceans. Several genera are pelagic and have very elongated forelegs equipped with ...


1

I can suggest three books, none of them cover all those aspects, though: 1) The Foundations of Ethology, Konrad Lorenz. The best introduction I know for the field of ethology. Lorenz is called by some "the father of ethology". 2) Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Edward Wilson. The deepest study of animal societies I know of. 3) Evolutionary Ecology, Eric ...


1

It's got to be because optical mirrors are relatively easy to produce and field, and it's obvious that it presents a duplicate. I would be interested in designs for a 'sound mirror' that doesn't just look like a wall under echolocation. Maybe a system to dynamically reproduce a 'sound hologram' of the bat? A 'scent mirror' would be really difficult to ...


1

Here are my thoughts. An animal does not chose to emit some light while they have more control over other signals they emit and may likely just not emit it. So it would not be an easy trait to study. More importantly, animals (almost) always receive feedback for signals they emit. When a dog barks, it can hear itself! Animals are not used to receive ...


1

Yes, creatures can swim different ways. If you drop a frog into water while it is in the ventral up position, it will indeed swim upside down to escape before righting itself, which occurs by rotating while swimming. If the water is too shallow, it will flop and flip before jumping away. Swimming on the surface ventral side up is kind of silly for a frog ...


1

As 3cat already stated, the terms actually refer to the pollinators. While solitary and social describe the behavioural traits (see this wikipedia article), diploid and haplodiploid give information about the chromosome number of the pollinators (see here and here). The descriptions in the article depict different combinations of both characteristics.


1

Suggested Reads: Evolutionary Psychology By Lance Workman, Will Reader Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models edited by Warren G. Kinzey Social Behaviour of Children: A Cross Cultural Assessment By Ralph E. S. Tanner


1

This may shed light on why the teenagers response to dopamine changes. Quote from reuniting website There's much still to learn, but it looks like a number of reward circuitry events occur after climax that have the potential to desensitize us for a time. First, androgen receptors decline after ejaculation, and take up to seven days to normalize. ...


1

The mirror test is definitely useful, but clearly biased toward animals with social intelligence (a notion of self is only useful if there's a notion of other) and also toward highly visual animals. A mole-rat, no matter how intelligent, is unlikely to use a mirror for much of anything. Using the same test for animals with very different sensory modalities ...


1

I cannot find any definite articles on why there would be a reason for this behaviour other than the same ones that you have mentioned in your article. It could be because it wants to mark its territory or the dog wants to hide its scent. One point that I would also like to add is force of habit. As Charles Darwin (the father of evolutionary biology) had ...


1

You might want to look at the Danish Data archive: http://www.sa.dk/content/us/about_us/danish_data_archive I have never used their data and I don't know what barriers there might be to accessing it, but the impression I got at a talk by Soren Brunak (http://ctbr.hunter.cuny.edu/Brunak), was that this was one of the most complete databases for studying ...


1

I'm going to hazard turning my comment into an answer.... Even if the answer might be no, you know this is a good thought and there is something there... lets dig a little. Eusociality in evolutionary biology is by many like Dawkins and Wilson pointing to the evolution of sterile castes of animals, which are very closely related to the breeding caste. ...



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