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4

Probably not. An immediate defense against predators requires an immediate response. The sting of Hymenoptera like the wasps and bees has an immediately painful reaction. In addition, in the eusocial (colony-forming) species, multiple individuals typically contribute to defense of their nest. One sting may not deter a predator or invader but dozens or ...


39

A quick search on Web of Science yields "Polyphasic Wake/Sleep Episodes in the Fire Ant, Solenopsis Invicta" (Cassill et al., 2009, @Mike Taylor found an accessable copy here) as one of the first hits. The main points from the abstract: Yes, ants sleep. indicators of deep sleep: ants are non-responsive to contact by other ants and antennae are folded ...


28

The short answer is apparently yes. Studies on sleep in insects date back to papers published by Phil and Nellie Rau in 1916 and 1938. Hussaini et al. (2003) showed that sleep does affect memory formation in honey bees. They showed that retention of extinction learning is significantly reduced in bees that were sleep-deprived. More about sleep in honeybees ...


4

What do you call an "evolved trait"? To my knowledge, the concept of "evolved trait" does not exist in evolutionary biology. Here are various definitions I can think of that could apply to the expression "evolved traits". Heritable Traits Does evolved traits mean heritable traits? A trait may be heritable or not. See for example my answer to this post to ...


0

I guess it is. I am no expert on the field but whatever trait that affects organisms fitness (likelihood to survive and reproduce) affects the destiny of the underlying genes. Thus it is obious to think that greed might be advantageous sometimes. Nevertheless society could evolve genes to abolish those kind of behaviours so it may be disadvantegeous too. But ...


-1

I've heard versions of these explanations before, but I have recently been working with a dog that really hides his poop. We have pea gravel in our pen area and found piles of pea gravel and upon raking them, there it is, completly hidden. The dog is a over excitable, fear based male shepherd with seperation anxiety. I think in his case he is actually ...


0

As 3cat already stated, the terms actually refer to the pollinators. While solitary and social describe the behavioural traits (see this wikipedia article), diploid and haplodiploid give information about the chromosome number of the pollinators (see here and here). The descriptions in the article depict different combinations of both characteristics.


1

This may shed light on why the teenagers response to dopamine changes. Quote from reuniting website There's much still to learn, but it looks like a number of reward circuitry events occur after climax that have the potential to desensitize us for a time. First, androgen receptors decline after ejaculation, and take up to seven days to normalize. ...



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