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6

I am not experienced in the topic, and could not find any article related to these kind of reactions, but my guess is the following. During the nuclear transmutation the radiocarbon will lose an electron (beta particle), so the nitrogen product will have positive charge. After that there are 2 possible scenarios. a.) less plausible scenario The beta ...


6

If they perform the exact same function, they can be considered the same functionally. Hemoglobin in most humans is the same, down to the amino acid sequence; the hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia, Hemoglobin C, Hemoglobin SC, thalassemia, and others are all different by at least one amino acid, yet they are all hemoglobins, and all do the same job: they ...


6

Human and mouse titin are orthologs, and can be confirmed through an NCBI query for TTN. Orthologous proteins are not the same, per se. They retain the same function, and basically result from speciation: the common ancestral gene got divided between two species. However, the sequence may potentially differ because obviously the species have diverged. ...


5

The straight forward answer is: we don't know. We don't have any direct evidence for what happened at that time nor any completely developed and coherent theories for how it worked. The widely believed hypothesis is the "RNA World" hypothesis. RNA, unlike DNA, is capable of spontaneously folding to form catalytic molecules and thus avoids the needs for ...


5

These are somewhat loosely defined terms, but I would say catabolism is any metabolic process that extracts energy from a substrate. Ethanol conversion to acetate (via alcohol dehydrogenase; see this schematic) is an oxidative pathway which extracts energy in the form of NADH, so yes, it is a catabolic pathway. I guess you can also call this process ...


4

I think you have misunderstood the "inside" part of the "positive-inside rule". Perhaps because "inside" is indeed an imprecise term (but now it is history and cannot be changed ;) ). In order to understand it a bit better it helps to think about the topology of the membrane. During synthesis most membrane proteins (ignoring peroxisomal and mitochondrial ...


4

Yes steroids are a class of lipids which include cholesterol and sex-hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. Only vitamin-D belongs to the class of steroids. Vitamins A, E and K are isoprenoids. In fact even steroids are synthesized from simple isoprenoids. You can refer to a standard biochemistry book to understand steroid biosynthesis pathway. There ...


3

According to this paper, green pigments are found in lepidoptera. The study focused on Geometridae, and found that the primary pigment in emerald moths, such as Hemistola chrysoprasaria is also found as secondary pigment in Pseudoips prasinana. The authors dubbed the substance 'Geoverdin' and suggest it may be a derivative of chlorophyll consumed during the ...


3

The vector used in this study is based on the herpes simplex virus genome (HSV). Wildtype HSV mainly infects sensory neurons. After infection, it resides in a latent state in the nervous systems of the host for a lifetime. The viral genome persists in the cell, without integrating into the host genome (Marconi et al., 2000). The article cited is devoid of ...


3

Pyruvate transfers an acetyl group to coenzyme A. The acetyl group from acetyl co-A is the molecule that provides the 2 carbon atoms that get added to oxaloacetate to form citrate, and as you said, citrate starts the cycle over again. Without coenzyme A, pyruvate cannot transfer the acetyl group to oxaloacetate to form citrate so without coenzyme A/acetyl ...


2

TL;DR: An expected efficiency for a typical PCR is 80%, meaning each cycle multiplies the copy number of the targeted DNA sequence 1.58 times. Firstly, it makes more sense to refer to the amount of DNA in a polymerase chain reaction in terms of copy number or in terms of moles; the number of DNA molecules of interest is what the reaction is operating on, ...


2

I suspect this is a product of differentialy expressed glycosyltransferases. Instead of adding a sialic acid, for example, if you're coding for Enzyme B which is an alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase, you're going to add a Gal to the glycan chain forming B antigen, and so forth. Sialyltransferases can add sialic acid groups, but to the same structure it looks ...


2

There are a lot of differences, you can check the companies that sell competent cells for guides on how to choose (NEB, Sigma Aldrich). But there are only a few things that matter for the really common uses of competent cells. The most important part of selecting your cells is choosing cells suitable for protein expression or for plasmid preparation. The ...


2

Apart from what Phototroph mentioned in their answer (competitive and non-competitive inhibition), an enzyme can be activated/inhibited via covalent modification of the protein (post-translational modification) such as phosphorylation by protein kinases (phosphorylation is the most common modification).


2

I would argue the all-or-none principle is a rule of thumb. It is generally true if voltage hits a certain threshold then there will be a action potential with the same amplitude regardless the strength of the stimuli. But as you point out with the logic gate example, the threshold is notoriously hard to define mathematically. Furthermore Action Potentials ...


1

For allosteric inhibition, the inhibitor binds to the enzyme and induces a change in the conformation so that the substrate cannot bind anymore. The binding site for the allosteric inhibitor is different from the substrate, see the image for illustration (from here): In non-competetive inhibition the inhibitor also binds to the enzyme indepently of the ...


1

Yes, competitive inhibition is another form of enzyme inhibition. The inhibitor binds to the active site here, as opposed to allosteric inhibition, where it binds to a secondary site. An example of an inhibitor would be the cyanide ion (CN-), which inhibits Cytochrome C oxidase, preventing electron chain transport and thus ATP production. Note this ion is ...


1

the electron transfer potential is based on the difference in the affinity of elements/molecules to bind electrons. the affinity of the element derives from it's components as shown in the elements table, just like all other characteristics. for example, oxygen has higher affinity to bind new electron than carbon. the affinity of the molecule derives from ...


1

The major hurdle for novel treatments to make it into humans is the assessment of its merits and added value over existing, proven treatments. And more importantly, the safety for humans has to be validated to a sufficient extent. The notorious from bench to bedside (Goldblatt & Lee, 2010) bottle neck. To answer your questions: Technically, going from ...


1

ATP burned per minute is not a useful number because the turnover is so high. 2000 kcal/day is dozens of kilograms of ATP so obviously ATP is turned over more than once a day, but there's probably more than one molecule of ATP being passed around between all the ATP synthases. This blog claims 250 grams. Taking the estimate of ATP concentrations(1-10 mM) ...


1

MD simulations. Molecular Dynamics algorithms like Gromacs and AMBER aim to simulate atomistic mechanisms of biological macromolecules. This video shows a good example of a resulting video from such a simulation for the CmAAT1 Enzyme, CmAAT1-Hex-aCoA complex. Much more data such as energy values and electrostatic interactions is available from the ...



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