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I have only used milk for blocking a couple of times but it was always beaten by bovine serum albumin (BSA), casein, or BSA/casein. My standard blocking buffer is 1 - 5% BSA in tris-buffered saline with 0.1% tween20. I have also used the Western Breeze kits from Invitrogen and in my hands their blocks and alkaline phosphatase detection reagents were very ...


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OK. Let’s answer the questions you pose: How does the pH affect the hydrolysis of ATP? High concentrations of hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions (“extremes of pH” — as you quote) cause acid or alkaline hydrolysis. The mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis is presumably through a cyclic intermediate, as with the hydrolysis of RNA. Acid hydrolysis of ATP requires ...


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Stability of ATP is largely due to Mg2+. ATP in cell is actually Mg2ATP2- The Mg ions stability the negative charges on the phosphates. pH is also important of course, but Mg is key, hence you see Mg2+ all the time in biochem when ATP is involved


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Bacteria and plants are able to synthesize all amino acids, as they are capable of nitrogen fixation. If animals eat plants, they get the essential amino acids needed for their proteins. Humans get the essential amino acids by eating these animals or directly by consuming plants. So yes, it is a never-ending cycle of passing.


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1 - probably because of regulation in the U.S. (and maybe other nations??). Nutrients added via fortification are regulated by the F.D.A essentially as foods. Nutrients in supplements are regulated essentially as manufactured goods. The difference -- despite both being ingested by us -- is a major source of concern. See http://www.fda.gov/Food/...


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The missing science to the question is the failure to realize that water inside a cell is bound to hydrophilic proteins which form an exclusion zone. This EZ is well described in the literature by Pollack. The EZ carries a strong net negative charge and it excludes protons. This has also been confirmed by numerous researchers across the world. The ...


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During cell-division centrioles move towards opposite 'poles' and finally get attached to cell-membrane. Different factors influence & drives this process, most still not discovered. So this mechanism is largely unknown. From the scientific literatures published on this matter till recently we can say that this process should include, 1. A structure ...


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It depends how you define an acid. For what it‘s worth, the chemical definition Google presents when I search is “a molecule or other species which can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions”. On that basis the serine residue in the catalytic triad is acting as a weakly ionizing acid. Of course in aqueous solution a free serine hydroxyl ...


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Coupling process by which two or more chemical reactions depend on each other through energy once one is exothermic another is endothermic, one produce product or intermediate which is used by the another Examples glycolysis and citric acid cycle , phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in steps of glycolysis and many other


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Your limited understanding is indeed correct - the different colours indicate different stages of maturation, even though different colour cultivars exist (e.g. some that remain green even if fully ripe). It is known that the different maturation states have different vitamin and/or mineral concentrations (see here or here). This indicates that different ...


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I used to work for a company well-known for its modification state-specific antibodies, including phospho-specific ones, and they actually performed extensive in-house testing of PBST vs. TBST in Western blotting. Part of the reason the company chose to recommend the use of Tris-buffered saline over phosphate-buffered saline based buffers was the clearly-...


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To answer your question in brief: an "activated water molecule" is one which is partially deprotonated (in this case... in other cases, partially protonated or metallated). Here, the bond between the water oxygen and one of the hydrogen atoms is partially broken, having been elongated (HO-----H). This is accomplished by a protein residue, which is often a ...


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There is ongoing research on this topic, but there is a theory known as inhibition theory. See this from here: Directed attention fatigue occurs when a particular part of the brain’s global inhibitory system is overworked due to the suppression of increasing numbers of stimuli. This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. ...


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If you are asking solely about data structure, the two data formats that you have given are essentially the same. Each row represents a PPI, so in a network a line (edge) will link the proteins (nodes) given in columns one and two. Column three is an edge score, but it can indicate a few things, confidence in the interaction or strength of the interaction. ...


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As @WYSIWYG said in comments, there is no effect of change in nitrogenous base on the third phosphate. Why? Simple, they are too far to directly influence each other's stability. See the diagram (of ATP) below from wikipedia: and of GTP from here: What one can clearly interpret from these diagrams is that there would be no effect on the energy released ...


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The futile cycle generates heat, and may be used to maintain thermal homeostasis, for example in the brown adipose tissue of young mammals, or to generate heat rapidly, for example in insect flight muscles and in hibernating animals during periodical arousal from torpor. It has been reported that the glucose metabolism substrate cycle is not a futile cycle ...


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According to David H. Vroon and Zafar Israili aminotransferases (transaminases) are widely distributed among tissues, and are found in both cytoplasm and mitochondria, although this may vary between different aminotransferases: Aminotransferases catalyze the redistribution of nitrogen between amino acids and corresponding oxoacids participating in both ...


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The oxidative deamination takes place inside the mitochondria, because the glutamate dehydrogenase is localized in the mitochondria. About the transamination, I'm not sure if it occur inside the mitochondria or in the cytoplasm. The information about the oxidative damination and the enzyme could be found at this link: http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/book/...


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To be more detailed it is the irreversibly of the reaction carried by Pyruvate dehydrogenase that makes the conversion of the fatty acid chains to glucose impossible. The fatty acids chains are converted to acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA to be converted into pyruvate need an enzyme that can do the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase's inverse reaction (in humans there is no ...



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