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3

The question is slightly unclear since it fails to clarify whether the GPL-1 receptor is endogenous or is over-expressed. Also does the GLP-1 belong the same species that Min-6 originates from or it belongs to a different species? Those are important points since if the receptor is endogenous then the main problem is sensitivity of the detection method, ...


0

Technically any catalysed reaction with a high Km and high Vmax. Also happens in case of co-operative binding reactions. See the oxygen haemoglobin binding.


2

Did you try googling "splice site recognition sequences"? In general, the first two letters of the intron must be GT, the next three are often ARG. The last three letters of the acceptor site of the intron are virtually always YAG


6

Aren't there any other alternatives for this acceptor? Yes, there are multiple other acceptors used by anaerobic bacteria. Iron is probably the most common other acceptor used by a range of organisms in a range of environments but others are used as well, such as sulphur. Aren't there any other alternatives for this acceptor? Oxygen is already ...


2

From what I can tell from this machine (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TwRtsAG5Oy4), the blue caps are put on the bottles first, then a loose version of the aluminium neck seals are put around the top of the capsule, which is then pressed in the machine to seal the lid hence if you use many gas sampling techniques, it might worth investing in purchasing a ...


4

Aren't there any other alternatives for this acceptor? Not that we're aware of. Every other alternative requires an anaerobic environment - which means small, and often less efficient. Oxygen is already recognized to have several harmful effects to cells - wouldn't another molecule be a better choice? When we're talking about a molecule's fit ...


4

There are several, but I guess the most well known is the neuron action potential, where the concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl- ions determine the membrane potential of the cell. When the potential reaches a certain level, it triggers the action potential. You can read about this in much more detail on wikipedia, ...


1

those are phosphorylated because they are the present in consensus sequences and enzyme are specific to phosphorylate the specific target that's why other are not phosphorylated and also because of the OH group of these amino acids


4

A tumor suppressor is an essential gene that regulates the cell cycle at different checkpoints. If one allele is lost due to a mutation then the function of that gene can be carried out by the other allele (There might be a less expression of that gene because of copy number reduction but it is not necessary in all cases- cases where there are feedback ...


0

Unlike other types of hormones, steroid hormones do not have to bind to plasma membrane receptors. Instead, they can interact with intracellular receptors that are themselves transcription activators. Steroid hormones too hydrophobic to dissolve readily in the blood travel on speciļ¬c carrier proteins from their point of release to their target tissues. In ...


1

This might be a good article to read: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497635 Robert Kerns's lab has been doing a lot of work on fluoroquinolines, so look into his other work as an entry to the literature. And apparently X-ray crystals have been done for at least parts of this complex. There is some evidence for fluoroquinolines binding to DNA, then ...


1

Sulfur is $3^{rd}$ most abundant mineral element in the body. Carnivores obtain it from Cysteine and Methionine in the animal protein which converted in to Glutathione. Excess of sulfur is stored into Glutathione or oxidised to sulfate by sulfite oxidase which is eventually eliminated by urine. [1]: Nimni ME, Han B, Cordoba F (2007). "Are we getting ...


1

In a strict sense, I think you are correct that [H$^+$] contributes directly to the Bohr effect. A paper by Perutz et al. (1980) identified at least two amino acid residues in hemoglobin that account for the Bohr effect by interacting directly with H$^+$. CO$_2$ is not directly involved. Further, the Bohr effect (and the Root effect) are defined in terms of ...


2

Would I be correct in saying that the Bohr effect is ONLY related to the concentration of [H+] in the tissues. I would say no. Because oxygen binding affinity is inversely related to both [1]: high $[H^+]$ concentration and $CO_2$ increase (which is can be a consequence of the first) $CO_2$ is involved in the Bohr effect: The biological ...


3

The diversity of fatty acids produced by an organism is limited by the diversity of enzymes which synthesize them. Unsaturated fatty acids contain carbon-carbon double bonds which do not isomerize. The capacity for humans to produce cis fatty acids is probably selected for because of their lower melting point which prevents arterial clogging. Cold blooded ...


2

A small hardy warm blooded omnivore that is easily tamed. I suggest rats. Small: You don't want a lot of metabolic effort going into building bone and structure to support structure. Hardy: it needs to be survivable with little care. Warm blooded: You want to harvest energy from it. Easily tamed: The animal shouldn't try to escape its captivity.


4

The main reason seems to be a mechanism to save water and allow the excretion of higher concentrations of the ions. See the image (from here): The urine enters the glomeruli at a relatively low rate and with a low magnesium concentration. The paper cited below mentions a concentration of 1.5mM. First organic compounds as glucose are recovered actively, ...


1

I have been told the normal fibroblasts are very similar all over the body. Is this really true? No. Strong evidence indicates that fibroblasts in different parts of the body are intrinsically different, and there may be differences between them even in a single region [3]. They have morphological similarities, but they act differently (at least ...


3

Michaelis-Menten: $V=V_{max}.\frac{[S]}{Ks+[S]}$ Lineweaver-Burk: $\frac{1}{V}=\frac{Ks}{V_{max}[S]}+\frac{1}{V_{max}}$ Plot $\frac{1}{V}$ vs $\frac{1}{[S]}$; find the slope and intercept of this plot. Depending on what you consider as primary substrate (glucose??) measure the concentrations using appropriate assays. Glucose sensors (based on glucose ...


5

High intracellular glucose. Affects: all cells that do not depend on insulin to take in glucose. Examples: neurons [1], kidney cells, retina cells. Causes: high extracellular glucose (in most cases hyperglycemia) Effects: promoting necrotic cell death through $H_2O_2$ (peroxide) formation, which may participate in the development of diabetic ...


1

Too much glucose leads to the formation of advanced glycated end products, which deposit in tissues like glomerulus and cause disease like diabetic nephropathy. Also glucose is osmotically active, so when it starts appearing in urine (because of its high levels in blood), it leads to polyuria, following which the lost water is recovered from body tissues, ...


2

Too much nitrogen can run off during rain and collect in ponds, leading to eutriphication, find more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication It's probably also responsible for dead zones: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_zone_%28ecology%29 This is an important question because we've more than doubled the amount of bioavailable nitrogen on ...


3

All molecules have a 3D shape. This is referred to as it's conformation. Most molecules have certain degrees of flexibility. For example, single bonds usually allow free rotation, while double bonds don't. Cyclic structures have less freedom, but can still twist into several shapes. This can be important because some molecules bend into a certain ...


1

Glucose transports from the blood into the cells via facilitated diffusion. This means that glucose goes from higher concentrations (in the blood) to lower concentration (in the cell). Therefore, if you have super high glucose concentrations in the blood, you will have a ton of glucose in the cells. Glucose will oxidize by itself, thus it will contribute a ...


2

The glucose can react with proteins, damaging them. This is called glycation. Note that glucose is the preferred body fuel and has a 10 fold lower ability to cause glycation than fructose. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycation


1

Humans have at least one enzyme which can break down D-amino acids, the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). They are able to break down these amoino acids, interestingly D-serine seems to play a role as a neurotransmitter. For more information have a look at these papers: Physiological functions of D-amino acid oxidases: from yeast to humans. Human D-amino acid ...


1

D-Glucose and L-Glucose have similar names only because we humans decided that's how we should name sugars; they have as much in common as, for example, D-Glucose and D-Allose (one chiral bond is different). So, in essence, organisms don't synthesize L-Glucose for the same reason they don't synthesize D-Allose: they have no use for it. Its similarity to ...


4

It may be important to consider the developmental stage of the "female body" as well. For instance, organizational vs. activational hypothesis--injecting testosterone during a critical period during development (it can be pre-natal, or during puberty) could produce permanent changes in secondary sexual characteristics and sex-specific behaviors; however, ...


3

Steroid hormones produce a slow response because they do not have secondary messenger It's true that steroids don't have secondary messengers because they don't need them - they can go directly into a cells nucleus and affect transcription there. This wouldn't slow down the response by much, however. Slow response is due to lack of cell membrane receptors ...



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