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I'm not exactly sure how it is done non-invasively in the manner you describe but suspect that it has to do with IR absorption spectroscopy. Glucose has distinct bands in the near-IR frequency range. So by illuminating the ear lobe and the capillaries in the surface, picking off the refracted light, and spectrally analyzing you should be able to determine ...


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This is not a new thing, by checking the articles about non-invasive glucose level measurement, it started in the early 90's. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the human inner lip were obtained by using a special optimized accessory for diffuse reflectance measurements. The partial-least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration algorithm was applied for ...


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I think inf3rno's answer is very complete, so I will just be adding some notes that might help OP understanding what's happening. Say that we increase the intracellular concentration of potassium by 10 mM, a +1 valence ion which contributes to POSITIVE membrane potential. Let's say we do that, in an in vitro cell model, using a syringe with only K⁺ ...


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I think this question has more to do with kinetics / transport phenomenons than biology, but that's okay, everything is connected especially my computer to the internet. ;-) The basic idea behind transport phenomenons is that there will always be a flux of quantitative properties (e.g. charges, particle number, entropy, volume, etc...) where the qualitative ...



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