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Unfortunately, there is no way to know how many sodium channels are active (or even present) in one person's brain due to the extremely high variability of channel and neuron density in a population and the lack of methodology around quantifying total number of healthy active synapses (1). Diseases like epilepsy can occur due various points of the sodium ...


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I think you have misunderstood the "inside" part of the "positive-inside rule". Perhaps because "inside" is indeed an imprecise term (but now it is history and cannot be changed ;) ). In order to understand it a bit better it helps to think about the topology of the membrane. During synthesis most membrane proteins (ignoring peroxisomal and mitochondrial ...


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Distribution of GFP When used as a reporter usually GFP is expressed by the cells themselves or attached to an antibody and injected. It ends up everywhere, is what I mean. Localization of GFP There are three solutions to the hidden-behind-tissue problem for fluorescence. Use a functionally 2D sample (nematodes, mouse limbs, etc) Sacrifice the ...


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A year and a half later, I stumbled upon this article by Ars Technica. To summarize, research/experts acknowledge that the calorie system is a poor way to measure human metabolic performance. Gut fauna, calorie measuring device differences, and caloric differences produced by different levels of cooking all contribute to this system being unreliable. To ...


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According to this paper, green pigments are found in lepidoptera. The study focused on Geometridae, and found that the primary pigment in emerald moths, such as Hemistola chrysoprasaria is also found as secondary pigment in Pseudoips prasinana. The authors dubbed the substance 'Geoverdin' and suggest it may be a derivative of chlorophyll consumed during the ...


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The answer to your (excellent) question is a matter of definition, which has its roots in the 18th century. A cathode is the electrode where conventional positive current leaves a current source. Conventional current is positive, due to historic reasons. Around 1750, Benjamin Franklin described the flow of current between wool and wax after ...



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