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Three facts: The K+ ions are heavily concentrated on the inside while the Na+ ions are heavily concentrated on the outside The Na+/K+ ion pump is unidirectional. It can only pump K+ ions inside the cell while expelling the Na+ ions. Finally only the Na+/K+ ion pumps can restore the ionic equilibrium. The full scene: Once the threshold is reached the ...


3

The growth of blood vessels is called angiogenesis. This process occures during embrional development, tissue repair, and even tumor formation (in fact this is a crucial step for tumors to survive). This Nature review provides great overview of the process, I'll try and briefly summarize things: In general large arteries grow circumferential to keep up ...


3

According to this wiki page , the average background radiation is 3.01 milli-Sievert per year (including natural and artificial sources). This equals 0.301 rad. I found a short letter to nature that says the average forward mutation rate in human is 2.6 * 10^-7 per locus per rad = 2.6 mutations per ten million bases. Also it say that this mutation rate is ...


1

Answer version1 (read the comments, I leave v1 for the those who can make the same assumptions in the future) To answer the question we should clarify some general concepts and processes mentioned it the clause: EMG is performed by means of direct placement of the electrode (the are two types here - surface-EMG and needle-EMG) on/into the skeletal ...


1

Birds, like amphibians, have a third eyelid (the nicitating membrane) that helps them keeps their eyes moistened and allows them to better visualize at high speeds (or, for amphibians, underwater). The glands in birds' eyes allow them to secrete a fluid that is more resistant to evaporation than tears. The membrane also acts as a 'windshield wiper,' with ...


4

Very basically, what they've done in the paper was incubate different DNA sequences with histone octamers which were then separated on a gel. From this they could measure the ratio between nucleosomal and free DNA, which represents an equilibrium constant. This can then be expressed as a change in free energy ($\Delta G=-RTln(K)$), which is what the table ...



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