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10

Some that just come to mind, in random order: One cannot skip reading: Richard Dawkins - The selfish gene And, obviously: Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species And, for those interested in the evolution of the brain (and its quirks): David J Linden - The Accidental Mind Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Not very ...


7

ATryn is a human antithrombin produced in the milk of transgenic goats by GTC Biotherapeutics. It has FDA approval and I believe that it is available for prescription in the USA. Added later, after the emphasis of the question changed somewhat. Proteins produced in a mammalian system are more likely to have post-translational modifications that are much ...


7

A good recollection of the early days of micro and molecular biology is "The Eighth day of Creation" It covers the early use of e. coli, the discovery of phage, transcriptional elements and the impact that DNA structure had. It's very comprehensive and really useful if you are doing molecular biology today.


6

The rationale for the choice of higher organisms as the producing source is based on costs and biological activity. Biological activity. In their active forms, various proteins have post-translational modifications (i.e. glycosylation) which are difficult to reproduce in bacteria. Alan's answer is already exhaustive. Costs. Mammalian cell lines are easier ...


6

You'd think if such devices were used in humans, they wouldn't require a change of lifestyle. They don't say the power always decreases over time: Katz’s snails, for example, produced up to 7.45 microwatts, but after 45 minutes, that power had decreased by 80%. To draw continuous power, Katz’s team had to ramp down the power they extracted to 0.16 ...


5

It doesn't have very many reviews, but The Epic History of Biology sounds like it's perfect. Flipping through the first chapter in the preview, it doesn't seem overly technical in any way, so secondary school-level knowledge is probably enough. If your associates have absolutely no biology experience, perhaps a run through a popular press book would ...


4

A fantastic book that covers the evolution of modern science since the Renaissance (including a great deal of biology) is The Scientists by John Gribbin. I found that by focusing on the people doing the science in the context of the society in which they lived, I got a much better understanding for why early scientists thought the way they did and researched ...


4

Would this application in humans require that a patient eats more and "breathes more" than average? From the cellular standview, each glucose and O2 molecule that you substract to the cell for use in a second futile cycle, should be replaced. However, I doubt that the amount of glucose/O2 required per hour will be so important to require additional ...


4

Yes, bacteria will produce human (or any organism's) proteins if you introduce their genetic material but there are a few things to consider. First, the introns must be removed from the human genetic sequence. Bacteria do not have the machinery to splice out introns after transcription. This is typically done by using a viral protein to reverse transcribe ...


4

According to this article, a single lacI gene copy gives rise to about 10 copies of lacI protein per cell, and we can conclude, therefore, that this is the amount required to keep a single lac operon repressed. The article also mentions the lacIQ mutation in the promoter of lacI that results in a ten-fold increase in the level of lacI protein. If a lac ...


4

NAD+ is important in this step, since it is co-factor for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), which acts as a acceptor for the hydrogen atom from the C1 (see below). If you look at the reaction, the aldehyde from the C1 is oxidized to a carboxylic acid which in a second step is turned into a phosphoester. To do so, a cysteine from the ...


4

I have had good experience using a lithium boric acid buffer from Faster Better Media. I use it for RNA gels, but it's advertised for DNA gels. I don't think it can do protein, but I've never tried it. I'm not an electrician, but higher conductivity may be the opposite of what you want. The lithium boric acid buffer claims to have less conductivity than a ...


4

The question which buffer for DNA is better is quite old. Both have their pros and cons and I list a few of them: TBE is a better conductor and is thus less prone for overheating the gel Borate is a powerful enzyme inhibitor, so if you want to apply enzymatic steps downstream, TAE is the better choice TAE gives a better resolution for large fragments TBE ...


4

Grossly, it does not matter what buffer you use. It is the pH that matters. For DNA electrophoresis EDTA is added in order to chelate divalent cations that serve as cofactors for nucleases. Tris is the base of the buffer and is used to set pH. Along with Tris one can use Boric acid, Acetic acid or phosphoric acid for adjusting the pH. The buffering range ...


4

There are already many great answers to your question, however I thought I put my comments in form of an answer. The standard for DNA agarose gel is TAE and for the protein, it depends on the size of the protein and the gel type used! Some times MOPS works best and sometimes Tris-acetate works best. It really depends on the gel used and also the protein and ...


3

The question is slightly unclear since it fails to clarify whether the GPL-1 receptor is endogenous or is over-expressed. Also does the GLP-1 belong the same species that Min-6 originates from or it belongs to a different species? Those are important points since if the receptor is endogenous then the main problem is sensitivity of the detection method, ...


3

By far the best book I've read on the history of biology is A Guinea Pig's History of Biology, by Jim Endersby. It tells the history of the field by focusing on experimental organisms and the contributions which were made by studying them. It has an engaging narrative style and the idea of focussing on organisms' stories is an excellent and original one. ...


3

Total solids (TS): The part of the sludge that remain after drying at 105C for 20 hours:((weight; dried at 105C)/(weight; wet))*100 = TS (%) Volatile solids (VS): The part of the sludge that is combusted at 550C after 2 hours: ((weight; dried at 105C - weight; dried at 550C)/(weight; dried at 105C))*100 = VS (% of TS)


3

In theory it's possible to have an approximation, but not to know with certainty. Identical twins have the same genomes and look very much alike. Whether it can be done in practice depends on how well we can model the relationship between genes and looks and on how much information is necessary for a judge to permit arresting and questioning a suspect. ...


3

I just came across Understanding Biotechnology. There is one very positive and one very negative review. I haven't read the book myself, but it looks that it is exactly what I was looking for: the table of content includes topics like small history overview, genetic engineering, gene therapy, pharmacogenomics, etc. It might be even useful for people with ...


2

I don't know very many books that might be referred to as the Grand History of Biology or anything like that. That's...a big topic. Really big. How about some suggestions for good Biology/Medical History books accessible to lay people: And the Band Played On, by Randy Shilts, an account of the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in the U.S. The Great Influenza, ...


2

My two favorite books are Molecular Biology made simple and fun and Biotechnology for Beginners. Both are well written and fun to read. As their names suggest, the former covers the basics of biology and the latter covers the basics of biotechnology.


2

This book, although a little dated, has given me an incredible appreciation of biology that I never gained in school: What is Life? by Erwin Shrodinger I am not a biologist, but I occasionally work on mathematical-biology and have training in physics and theoretical computer science. This book was much more accessible to me that other books on biology. ...


2

For the definition, see Pelle's answer. For the reasons, both are easy and cheap to measure and can tell you a lot about your material if you have similiar mterial to compare. TS is often used to asses howa material can be handled (pumpable, stackable) In agricultural biogas applications for example, a sometimes used assumption is 1g COD = 1,6 g VS In AD, ...


2

Reverse transcriptase, as the name suggests, uses an RNA template to create a DNA transcript (i.e., complement). Once the DNA complement has been made, DNA polymerase is used because it uses a DNA template to produce a DNA complementary strand. In your specific example, HIV contains a positive-stranded, RNA genome. The HIV RT can use either RNA or DNA ...


2

Although the genetic code is almost conserved among organisms there are some issues to take in account, among which: Every organism has its own codon usage, i.e. the differences in frequency of occurrence in synonymous codons in coding DNA (that reflect the composition of tRNA abundances). So, for example, the codons UUU and UUC both encode for ...


2

DNA sequencing, RFLP, IHC, In Situ Hybridization, Southern Blotting. I think the technique you are looking for (what you are talking about), is an Electro Mobility Shift Assay or EMSA


2

DNAse-seq is the most obvious choice. It uses the same idea as DNAse footprinting but measures output using high-throughput sequencing, so it can be done on a whole genome in one shot.


2

I actually doubt that the pectinase has such a broad pH range in which it works optimally. Searching the web I found two figures which support my doubts: The first is from an article ("Immobilization of pectinase by adsorption on an alginate-coated chitin support") which compares the activity of native and immobilized pectinase under different ...


2

Baculoviruses are a a class of viruses which infect only a pretty small number of insects (or their cells in cell culture). To do so, the virus has to infect a cell, take it over to produce the own proteins and DNA to make new virus particles and finally set these new particles free. This is basically what is shown in the image below (from here): From the ...



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