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5

It looks like sustained or consistent moisture might be (at least part of) the phenological cue for flowering: The wikipedia article mentions that consistent humidity will induce flowering in at least some species and cites Fernández-Alonso & Groenendijk (2004), which says: It generally flowers after the rainy periods, but in humid pastures and ...


4

It's a nice question, I've tried looking for research papers to no avail. But I will add a few things that I hope will help: Firstly, tap water's composition is quite different from rain water- two criteria for distinction that come to mind would be pH and TDS, details follow: Tap water has a higher TDS (total dissolved solids)than rain water, making ...


2

It's just a variant of kale, part of the genus Brassica. I think you'd call this particular variant redbor or purple, bluntly, but you could go further because kale is often classified by the type of leaf. So in your picture, curly 'redbor' or 'purple' kale. This is your specific name: Brassica oleracea Acephala Group. (just sort of look at wikipedia)


2

This is a moss of the genus polytrichum, most likely it is P. commune or P. formosum



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