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There is no strong evidence for MSG having any kind of neurotoxic/neuromodulatory effect. However, A 2010 article says that, in a double blind trial, it was found that the people who consumed MSG containing soda, reported headache in significantly more numbers compared to the placebo subjects [1]. The concentration of MSG used in this study was 75-150 ...


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Mordake was a conjoined twin fused at the head (Fig. 1). Twins conjoined at the heads are rare, occurring only once in every 2.5 million live births. Moreover, in Mordake's case it was a parasitic twin head with an undeveloped body that was fused with his own head. This condition is referred to as craniopagus parasiticus, or ├ępicome / epicomus. Craniopagus ...


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Short answer Glutamate cannot enter the brain due to the blood-brain-barrier. Background You are totally right that glutamate represents the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain (Meldrum, 2000). However, glutamate is a regular amino acid and will be metabolized quickly. More importantly, the blood-brain barrier is extremely effective in ...


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Phineas Gage actually recovered from his personality change. A recent study was just published suggesting that most of what we thought we knew about Gage is incorrect, and he recovered from this extreme personality change. An emeritus professor, Richard Griggs, analysed over 23 books on Gage and came to the conclusion that he made a miraculous recovery, ...



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