Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

10

I will just show the statistics of last attempt to mimic the brain process. Last year Japan launched there fastest supercomputer: K computer OR SPARC64 VIIIfx 2.0GHz Features: Manufacturer: Fujitsu Cores: 705,024 Linpack Performance (Rmax) 10,510 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak) 11,280.4 TFlop/s Power: 12,659.89 kW Memory: 1,410,048 GB ...


9

To quote the University of Sidney site: People often think that other people are staring at them even when they aren't research led by the University of Sydney has found. When in doubt, the human brain is more likely to tell its owner that they're under the gaze of another person, researchers from the University of Sydney and The Vision Centre ...


8

It's less a problem of speed and more of raw photon count. Assuming a brightly lit day, the bullet will move so fast that it doesn't reflect enough photons to register against the background. High speed images of bullets usually involve a very bright flash (and other controlled settings) for the camera to pick it up. (Also, a very short flash helps the ...


7

You are correct in that the neurons themselves do not sense pain. However, the brain contains layers of coverings, blood vessels, the scalp and some muscles. All of these other structures have pain receptors. The coverings of the brain are called meninges and consist of the dura, arachnoid and pia. The dura in particular has a lot of pain receptors and may ...


7

The temporal lobe is in the temporal region of the head, near the temples of the skull, hence the name. It's name does not relate to it's biological function, it is mainly involved in processing language, visual memories, and emotions. The medulla oblongata is one region of the brain that deals with a lot of the "tempo" type functions (tempo as in keeping ...


7

Briefly the "Stoned Ape theory" posits that psychoactive Psilocybin mushrooms in the diet of pre-Homo sapiens primates catalyzed the change Homo sapiens. It suggests that the mushrooms conveyed selective benefits to consumers of the mushrooms, dissolving the 'egos' of our ancestors and allowing them to form communities. It may also be sexual stimulant, ...


6

Refute? No. Shigeta summarized the work pretty well, and though I have my own opinions on McKenna's theory the fact is that Darwin and McKenna are not opposed. The "Stoned Ape theory" is a specific idea for how human intelligence might have appeared from earlier hominids. Darwin (and Wallace) proposed a broad theory that has borne out for the process of ...


6

The idea that memories could be stored as RNA or proteins is an old one. It got a lot of attention decades ago when James McConnell did a number of experiments where he conditioned planarian flatworms to respond to certain stimuli, ground them up, fed them to worms that hadn't gone through the conditioning. He claimed to have observed that the worms fed ...


6

Three possible mechanisms are mentioned in the first referenced article [1]: Attentional blink - the failure to detect a (visual) stimulus [2]. Visual short-term memory - non-permanent storage of visual information over an extended period of time [3]. Psychological refractory period - the period of time during which the response to a second stimulus is ...


5

It's very likely that memory is "lossy" and holographic, such that you can keep adding more information indefinitely, but retain it with less and less accuracy. Memory isn't a digital storage system with X gigabytes of capacity, and the inputs to memory aren't neat little packets. What we remember are a web of associations and patterns. Vastly ...


4

Yes, both steroid and peptidic hormones can enter the brain, the obvious proof being that the brain responds to changing blood concentration of hormones. The situation is different for steroid hormones (such as estrogen, testosterone, cortisol etc) which are small and lipophilic, and peptidic hormones (such as insulin, ghrelin, prolactin etc) which are big ...


4

There is no widely-accepted neurological structure that mediates 'consciousness.' Even if some structures have been shown to be necessary for consciousness, they have not been shown to be sufficient. This is true with anesthetic mechanisms as well -- their ability to paralyze and block pain signals is fairly well-understood, but the mechanism of ...


4

V1-V5 are different (sub) regions of the visual cortex itself. via http://www.tecsyn.com The layers L1-L5 (some regions have a layer 6) refer to the different cellular strata in the depth dimension of the cortical mass. This stratification occurs to some extent or another in various areas. Different sections of the cortex, e.g., the primary motor ...


4

It seems there's way too many variables here. Crushing can occur in a number of ways, leading to different primary damage in different regions first and different people have a different level of system failure thresholds. Technically, there are no pain sensors on the brain, so you wouldn't feel any pain in the classical sense. However, it's hard to ...


4

"Is it possible" has a carefully conditional "yes". Do we have the expertise or technology to do it now? No. One of the biggest difficulties is that nerve tissues (the connections between brain and rest of body) will take time to heal... time during which the brain cannot sufficiently give commands to the rest of the body to keep autonomic functions ...


4

Orbitofrontal cortex: the area of the cerebral cortex located at the base of the frontal lobes above the orbits (or eye sockets), involved especially in social and emotional behaviour.


4

One of the many advantage of an all-or-none system is that resources can be conserved for timing events that require synchronized collaboration between many cells (like locomotion). Binary behavior may also partially be a side effect of speed and efficient long-distance information transfer (which is one of the great advantages of neurons as cells in the ...


4

I think I can partially answer you question. As far as I'm aware, there are many surface receptor molecules such as immunoglobulins that are responsible for axonal guidance and dendritic repulsion in developing organisms such as flies (Drosophila). As you can tell this is extremely crucial since its important for neurons to spread their dendrites and axons ...


4

Yes, but rarely. Other types of brain cells are much more likely to form tumors. Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and more generally glial cells all form tumors with some regularity. Nerve sheaths can also form benign growths. Nerves themselves can even manifest cancerous behavior, even though they are nearly always benign and very slow growing. ...


4

Yes, there is a limit: Despite the impressive complexity and processing power of the human brain, it is severely capacity limited [1]. Human brain has 78.82– 95.40 billion neurons [2] and about $3.6 \cdot 10^{14}$ synapses in the cortex [3]. We shouldn't worry about running out of space, because neurons connect with each other to exponentially increase ...


4

Neuroscience doesn't really have a clear model for what a "thought" consists of exactly. Certain processes that are involved in thought have begun to be mapped--for example, this recent paper talks about a model for how the brain associates location in space with it's own mental map (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462102, I'll try to find something ...


3

I think that the advantages of using both hands with equal ease is quite evident whether it be sports, at your work or while you are doing your household chores. An obvious advantage is using both hands to write or draw with both at the same time. I would be focusing on the disadvantages that may be faced. 1) Ambidextrous people are more prone to ...


3

This is a common phenomena which most of us come across. Seeing flashes of light, stars and other shapes in the eyes occur when the body goes through stressful activities. For example while you are climbing the blood flow will be more to other prominent parts like hands and lower waist so brain and eyes will get less supply of blood as well as nutrients. ...


3

Have you ever tried to read a complicated book after several hours of hard work that required a high concentration? Imagine that you have forced a particular area of your brain. After a hard work, the areas of the brain that we used to finish a work seem don't respond to any stimulation and make us feeling tired and as we can't understand what we are doing ...


3

Auditory information is routed to cerebral hemispheres via the brainstem and midbrain. Structures in the midbrain receive information from both ears and combine it (including differencing it for spatial location) before sending the combined information on to both cerebral hemispheres. Usually only the left hemisphere interprets the sound for language ...


3

Indeed, C. elegans nematodes (which are the ones you are talking about) do not show cognitive responses. AFAIK, Drosophila melanogaster is also able to learn and display some quite complex behaviors, but no cognitive functions. I believe the "simplest" organism known to display what could be called "cognitive" functions is the honeybee (see for example this ...


3

Yes, they do. A blog post on the National Geographic website describes the results of a study about how blind people dream.(1) The participants who were born blind did not report any visual impressions. Among those who previously had sight, the number of visual impressions reported decreased with the time since loss of sight. Just as there are many ways ...


3

Crossing or decussation is a lot more robust against wiring errors than their seemingly simpler same-sided wiring counterparts. See here for the research carried out to establish this and for more detail.


3

Humans have evolved for 24 hour days and our bodies would not adapt well to this short of sleep/wake cycles (whether or not they were born there, unless they have been there for many generations and have been able to evolve for the new time). Our bodies would still want to spend about the same amount of time sleeping and being awake. If we tried to adjust ...


3

There are multiple levels of memory, some of which would die immediately, some of which would take some time. So the answer is: it depends; some immediately, some only very slowly. At the highest level, the current neuronal firing state of the brain encodes memory on a very short scale - working memory. The memory held on this level does not have a clear ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible