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Short answer Glutamate cannot enter the brain due to the blood-brain-barrier. Background You are totally right that glutamate represents the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain (Meldrum, 2000). However, glutamate is a regular amino acid and will be metabolized quickly. More importantly, the blood-brain barrier is extremely effective in ...


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There is no strong evidence for MSG having any kind of neurotoxic/neuromodulatory effect. However, A 2010 article says that, in a double blind trial, it was found that the people who consumed MSG containing soda, reported headache in significantly more numbers compared to the placebo subjects [1]. The concentration of MSG used in this study was 75-150 ...


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Mordake was a conjoined twin fused at the head (Fig. 1). Twins conjoined at the heads are rare, occurring only once in every 2.5 million live births. Moreover, in Mordake's case it was a parasitic twin head with an undeveloped body that was fused with his own head. This condition is referred to as craniopagus parasiticus, or ├ępicome / epicomus. Craniopagus ...


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From what I can make up from your question is that you assume the blood in the brain is a bad thing in terms of temperature control. It is not. On the contrary, blood circulation is crucial in maintaining brain temperature. Under conditions where the brain is heating up, which seems the focus of your question, there are mechanisms in place to extract this ...


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The brain is indeed stacked with blood vessels, as shown in a 3D model in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. 3D-printed model of blood vaculature. Source: Biobots. The blood supply on the surface of a live brain is readily seen during a craniotomy (Fig. 2.) Fig. 2. Surface of the brain. Source: The Sterile Eye. When freshly prepared, the interior of the brain appears ...


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FDA recently approved the duodenal levodopa infusion pump. Idea is to wear the pump 18 hours a day, removing it at night. This allows for a small dose of levodopa to be injected through the day. I can not yet add comments, only new post. @shortage_radeon The leading causes of death, among patients with Parkinson's, were pneumonia and bronchitis. ...


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Short answer The layers in the cortex are histologically and functionally defined. Both 3- and 6-layered cortices are found in the human brain. Hence, the different cortical layers are not models, but classifications based on empirical observations. Background The different cortical layers have been defined by histological staining and microscopy. The ...


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While it's widely believed snakes have primitive emotions such as fear, anger, and ,to a lesser degree, pleasure, no one is sure beyond that. Many snake enthusiasts would argue that snakes show more emotion then widely accepted, with studies showing snakes(along with other reptiles) have personalities, though less complex then humans, making it possible for ...



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