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I was wondering: why most, well, pretty much all organism with a brain have it right in front of their bodies or at the top. I believe you're confounding origins. Complex brains -- like those in us and other mammals -- are situated in the position that has been the best-protected over millions of years of evolution. Evolution did not decide where the ...


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TL;DR Visual and auditory systems are crucial for survival, especially in higher animals. Also, visual/auditory systems have great number of cells. For processing to be effective, it should be performed closer to data acquisition (eyes). First of all, for example, in mouse or human, central nervous system includes brain and spinal cord. Since spinal cord is ...


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Short answer is yes, of course. Maintaining a healthy synapse is very energy-consuming process. Let me first note that forgetting as we know it is more complicated than just pruning of synapses. It might involve rearrangement of proteins in pre/post-synaptic membrane and near it, local de-regulation of local protein synthesis, decrease in synaptic mRNA ...


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The difference between secretion of ACTH and neurohypophysial hormones is that the prior is a two step process, with CRF from hypothalamus stimulating the anterior pituitary. The latter is produced and secreted from the same cell, only in different organs! Magnocellular neurons stretch from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary, where they have their ...


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There's a very big difference between doing the calculations needed to simulate the human brain (or any animal brain FTM - we can do a fairly decent job on C. elegans.), and doing computations. While a basic leaky integrate & fire model is fairly simple, to ACCURATELY simulate a single neuron in real time takes a pretty fast computer. See e.g. these ...


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Actually there is fatty acid transport through the BBB. Maybe the rate of this transport is not enough, I don't know, I think it does not really matter. What really happens here, that the liver prepares the fatty acids, so the brain can use them more easily in the form of ketoacids to produce energy. fatty acid catabolism shared between the liver and ...


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Human body is a glucose driven machine which intake carbohydrates and converts to glucose. Energy is yielded from the glucose and glucose is stored as glycogen. When the carbohydrate intake is somehow reduced then body will shift its mechanism and uses the fatty acids to produce energy. Liver synthesis ketones from fatty acids in our diet or from body fat. ...


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The primary somatosensory and primary motor cortices are distinct cortical areas. According to the structural classification of Brodmann, the primary somatosensory cortex is referred to as Brodmann's areas 1,2 and 3 (BA1, BA2 and BA3). The primary motor cortex is referred to as Brodmann's area 4 (BA4). The primary sensory cortex is sometimes denoted by S1, ...


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I did a quick search and found some research in this area. Sleep inertia is the technical term for feeling groggy for a while after waking up. In a review article by Patricia Tassi, Alain Muzet (Sleep inertia. Sleep Medicine Reviews. Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2000, Pages 341–353), they define sleep inertia as Sleep inertia is a transitional state of ...


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Sleep occurs in stages. There are three stages of non-REM sleep followed by REM sleep. Natural waking occurs during the REM stage. If your alarm goes off while you are in the middle of deep sleep, you are going to feel different from if you had woken up naturally. That's why there's a market for alarm clocks designed to wake you up during light sleep.


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T-cell migration to the brain is very limited and occurs at a very low level in healthy conditions, however during diseases the number of T cells passing through the blood-brain barrier is elevate due to increased expression of traffic signals and adhesive molecules. I've found two good articles on how T-cells migrate through blood-brain barrier: J Neural ...


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Your question is basically a matter of defining brain plasticity or more broader, neuroplasticity. According to a well-cited paper in Brain (Cramer et al., 2011) neuroplasticity is defined as: [...] the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections. Hence, the term can ...


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Is there a significant difference in calorie burn? No. The brain, while only making up 2% of our body weight, accounts for ~20% of our energy use at rest. That's because the brain, being critical for survival, is a very high-maintenance organ. At rest, the membrane potentials of all neurons - firing or at "rest" - need to be controlled/maintained. Of ...



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