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17

A tumour is simply a space-occupying lesion (something that should not be there, that is; a "lump") caused by abnormal cell replication. (In medicine, the word "tumour" literally means "swelling", and can sometimes refer to that instead, but that's a different story). Cancer is a disease in which cell replication is totally out of control. What causes ...


15

The HeLa cell line is undoubtedly the most used and investigated human immortal tumor cell line. Extracted from a cervical tumor from Henrietta Lacks in 1951 at Johns Hopkins hospital, Baltimore, MD these cells proved immortal and are still used in many, many labs worldwide today. It is the oldest human cell line in use and, therefore, the oldest human ...


14

Yes. The very first cells used to study cancer are still around (HeLa Immortal Cells - Named for the subject Henrietta Lacks) and are basically immortal as long as they're fed. As for tumors, whether cancerous or not they most definitely can continue to grow until they become a serious medical issue (WARNING: GRAPHIC - 3 Largest Tumors Recorded). One of the ...


13

Actually we aren't that good at localizing cancer cells. There need to be around 100,000 cancer cells at a single location for the cancer to be visible on fMRI. If you want to treat a cancer via chemotherapy it's good to be able to see the cancer. It allows you to see whether the drug you are giving works. When dealing with a metastasized cancer where you ...


12

Yes, plants of all sizes can have cancerous growths. Agrobacterium tumifaciens, the causative agent of crown gall disease, produces what is called a tumor. See this link for detailed information on these growths. Alternatively, use a plant physiology textbook to look up the above terms. (Here, is where a textbook is better than a single abstract in PubMed.) ...


12

All mutagens are potential carcinogens. Unless the mutagen is highly specific to a site. HPV causes oncogenic transformation of a cell because of certain proteins that it expresses. Its mechanism is directed and specific. Most "carcinogens" are non-specific agents. However according to the definition, HPV can be called a carcinogen. Retroviruses can ...


12

Such projections are more formally known as spiculations. Most commonly, we talk about spiculations with respect to the radiographic appearance of malignant breast and lung lesions. This paper* describes the correlation between the mammorgraphic appearance of spiculated breast lesions and their pathology (microscopic appearance), which is a reasonable start ...


11

This is a great question. Just to make it clear people with DS do have a reduced risk of solid cancers and an increased risk of blood cancers, (B-ALL and AML). You are correct in picking out DSRC1 because of its angiogenic implications. The current hypothesis centers around people with DS being less capable of driving angiogenesis, and therefore having an ...


10

Hanahan and Weinberg's "Hallmarks of Cancer" articles should answer your question. Their original, highly cited (14k+ citations), [Six] Hallmarks of Cancer article list these six common attributes of all cancers: Sustaining proliferative signaling Evading growth suppressors Activating invasion and metastasis Enabling replicative immortality Inducing ...


10

Interesting question. I believe it definitely is an evolutionary process. unicellularity breaking away from a multicellular life. There are two examples that I can think of, which can support this argument: Hela cells: Hela cells have been classified as a different organism because they have the ability to grow outside the host indefinitely and their ...


10

Short answer Large animals do get cancer. They may contract cancer with an incidence less than that estimated by absolute cell numbers, but there seems to be a lack of data on cancer rates in large animals to support this hypothesis conclusively. Background Whales contract cancer (Martineau et al, 2002). There does, however, seem to be a lack of correlation ...


9

The cells never died in the sense that they kept replicating, individual cells still died. They were safely cultured in petri dishes before Henrietta Lacks died. The cells came from a tumor that developed from her cervix. The cervical cancer cells had developed high telomerase activity. Telomerase builds telomeres on the ends of DNA, protecting the ...


8

To answer this question in its entirety we have to split it into two questions: What are the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenity? One of the main mechanism behind carcinogenity is the mutagenity of the cancerogens, i.e. the ability to cause mutations, that are abberations of the cell DNA leading to uncontrolled proliferation. This classical paper ...


8

This is a specific version of the great cancer question: "Why are some cancers more common than others?" The answer is either "Some have more common causes", and (or) "Some are cured spontaneously more often". So now all you are asking is "What causes cancer?" and "How do we cure it?" Given that, I don't expect a general definitive answer will be ...


8

Cancer cells and normal cells differ on the genetic basis but they share the same genetic background, so they have not different DNA in the sense of two different people. They have to be different, since cancer cells have to accumulate mutations on a number of genes to become a cancer cell, which can survive and will not be directed into apoptosis. These are ...


8

Ewing's sarcoma is a bone cancer. As such, it does not arise as a primary tumor in the heart. Ewing's sarcoma does metastasize. Like any metastatic cancer, it seeds along it's venous return to the heart, "taking root" in suitable tissue. Cardiac metastases of Ewing's sarcoma are exceedingly rare, with only a few reported cases. Since all blood returns to ...


8

The methodology behind homeopathy is scientific nonsense. If you dilute anything a billion times, it will have no chemical effect, not even if you shake it all the while. So no, homeopathy does nothing for cancer, or any medical condition at all. Of course plants can have active compounds in them, once scientists have identified those compounds, they can ...


7

Yes, this is mostly about estrogen. Most breast cancers rely on endogenous estrogen to sustain proliferation. Some general reading: Cancer Medicine, Chapter 18 More in-depth reading: Endogenous Hormones as a Major Factor in Human Cancer Requested summary of mentioned readings: First of all, there is an established link between breast cancer cell ...


7

I'm assuming you are not talking about a single solid tumor, but rather one where the tumor is loose and is distributed throughout the tissue, or has metastasized I guess the answer is you could, but it would be one amazing machine. This robot would have to examine each individual cell and destroy it based on what you could sense about the surface ...


7

This article covers some of the key issues of cancer in layman's terms. Essential, cancer is caused by multiple mutations in key regulatory genes which function in maintaining the cell cycle. This provokes uncontrollably rapid cell division, with only furthers the problem with genetic mutation. Here are some quotes from the article to strengthen your ...


7

Interesting question. My answer is no, but it requires a rather science-fiction style answer - at least it's beyond current technology, but here goes: My Assumptions I make the simplifying assumption that ageing is only related to telomere length. Thus by "avoid ageing" I assume you mean "avoid telomere shortening". Also to clarify things for others, I'll ...


7

Sharks sense their prey with the normal senses, they see, hear and smell them. They have a remarkable sensitive sense of smelling, which enables them to sense highly diluted traces of prey. They can also use their smelling to determine the direction where a certain smell comes from. This is achieved by the timing in which the senses arrive in different ...


7

Cancer cells can be and are used in cell culture. HeLa cells were the first human cell line to be grown in culture and they were derived from a cervical tumor. That being said, Cancer cell lines would not necessarily be used for stem cell work. They have sustained too many mutations to study the type of questions that stem cells are used to study, though as ...


6

Cancer is such a diverse group of diseases that they really only share one commonality, unregulated cell growth with the potential ability to invade or transfer to other tissue types. Many types of cancer share certain characteristics and can thus be grouped, but as a whole the only characteristic all cancers share is that they are classified as cancer. ...


6

As mentioned in the comments, this question is quite complicated. If the chance of a single cell from different organisms getting cancer was the same, then you would be correct, but this is not the case. Different organisms have evolved to live different lengths of time. This is rather obvious when you think about it: mice have a maximum lifespan of ~3 ...


6

So if you're reading the flowchart, understanding the notation of the arrows is important: We have rectangles around the gene products There's a circle, denoted by DNA, noting that the proteins are expressing the product that follows through interaction with DNA The solid line with an arrowhead means there's some sort of interaction The solid line with the ...


6

TGF-beta would be a good candidate. To cite: "TGF-β inhibits G1/S progression in a variety of eukaryotic cell types. Among these, untransformed epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the growth inhibition by TGF-β." http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/14/24/3093.full Fetal bovine serum (FBS) contains a high level of latent TGF-β. Human serum as well ...


6

Although transmissible cancer has been found in some species, such as Tasmanian Devils and clams, it is quite rare in most species. Certain viral and bacterial agents that cause cancer, however, can be transmitted. One example is HPV, which can cause cervical cancer


6

Adding onto AMR's answer, cancer cell lines are used extensively for research. They are typically fast to grow. HeLa Long grow to capacity of a 10cm dish within about 48hours, depending how you split them. Now some lines are different than others and each have their pros/cons but the main thing behind them is they make it possible to view the effects of ...



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