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According to this website: http://www.spirometry.guru/fvc.html it causes difficulty with inhalation but exhalation is normal... "Typically the expiratory part of the F/V-loop is normal: the obstruction is pushed outwards by the force of the expiration." "During inspiration the obstruction is sucked into the trachea with partial obstruction and ...


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I would disagree a bit with the previous answer. There are absolutely differences between the metastasis and the primary tumor. One result of this is that people very rarely die of primary tumors, but rather from the metastases of those tumors. The primary tumors will be quite heterogeneous and contain largely cells that have not undergone steps necessary ...


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By definition, a cancer which has spread to another site via the circulatory or the lymphatic system (called metastasis) is malignant. If a surgeon takes it from a secondary site, it is malignant. In the past, there were times that a cancer was so undifferentiated that to determine it's source was not possible. As science (particularly genetics) and ...


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This seems to be a standard procedure knockout and complementation rescue experiment. Breed 2 can be produced from Breed 3 (assuming the Caspase 9 gene indeed causes cancer when it is not expressed). Firstly, knockout Caspase 9 from a wild type, creating Breed 3. Verify that the cancer phenotype is shown and is statistically significant. Then, ...


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I assume these are all carcinogenic mutations. Because some them are clearly recessive loss-of-function mutations (like loss of transcript), you can conclude that the function of the gene consists of "holding back cancer". When these mutations occur, they can generally be complemented by a healthy allele on the sister chromosome. Oncogenes on the other ...



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