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6

You're basically confusing the fuel source with the energy it produces. For example, a car burns gasoline. That doesn't mean that gasoline is energy, only that gasoline can be used to produce energy. Similarly, a cell uses electrons in the production of ATP (source): In the image above, electrons flow (symbolized by the flat arrow going from ...


6

To be specific: I am talking about adult, somatic gene therapy here, and germline gene therapy experiments is still a landmine when considering ethical reasons. The defective gene codes for a defective protein, that usually plays a part in pathways. Since the protein is also defective, that pathway is also rendered defective because of this protein, and ...


6

Wanted to give a one line answer some day!! Lens fiber cells and keratinocytes.


5

Short answer As far as I know, red blood cells and blood platelets are the only human cells in our body without a nucleus. Background Erythrocytes and thrombocytes are the only human cells without a nucleus, as far as I know. However, if you count the gut as being part of the human body (in essence it is a continuation of the skin and as such it can be ...


3

It is of use. They're saying that naive T cells cannot be activated by normal cells because the latter lack the appropriate co-stimulus, namely B7. However, activated CD8+ T cells can recognize antigens presented by normal cells and form a response. This is how cytotoxic T cells are able to eliminate transformed or infected cells.


2

This is too long for a comment, so I have to write it in here: Mostly this is because other cell lines are more practical in the lab. Stem cells are much more tricky to maintain - especially if you want to keep their stem cell properties. They only grow very slow, tend to differentiate when they get too much stress, cellular signals and so on and need ...


2

Another example of multinucleated cells is osteoclasts, which are specialized derivatives of macrophages that degrade bone matrix. They form by fusion of mononucleated progenitors and can accumulate many nuclei in a single large cell. In cell culture with mouse macrophages, it's common to obtain individual osteoclasts with 50-100 or more nuclei each.


2

Found the following on wikipedia. Seems pretty self explanatory: The Golgi, ER, and lysosomes are likely to have evolved as a result of the plasma membrane going through invagination. An increase in the overall volume of a cell would require the plasma membrane to fold in order to maintain a constant surface area to volume ratio. These folds may ...


1

This review 22 proteins in the NOD like human repetoire. It was published in 2013... The families are broken down into 9 general groups according to their domain composition in Figure 1 from that review. Most of them are not named "NOD".


1

Endless Form Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo introduces the reader to several classic embryology experiments and some key principles too. I'll edit this answer when I find more books or reading material of this nature.


1

Gi and Gs have a structurally different sub unit in their alpha chain. The receptors for PGE1 and adenosine interact with inhibitory Gi, which contains the same β and γ subunits as stimulatory Gs but a different α subunit (Giα). In response to binding of an inhibitory ligand to its receptor, the associated Gi protein releases its bound GDP and ...


1

This is an old question by now, but thought I'd give it a shot anyway. I am guessing the "insides in and outsides out" refers to maintaining intracellular concentrations of nutrients and other important molecules. The cell does spend a lot of energy to maintain high concentrations of amino acids and other key metabolites in the cytoplasm. The cell membrane ...



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