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8

After cleavage, the signal sequence is generally thought to be degraded by intramembrane proteases (since it is embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane). For at least some proteins, the signal sequence is further processed and released into the cytoplasm or ER lumen. Martoglio B. 2003. Intramembrane proteolysis and post-targeting functions of signal ...


8

I can think of at least 3 reasons in addition to the one you gave: 1: As mentioned in the comments, RNA splicing takes place on most messenger RNA encoding proteins in eukaryotes. Sections of the mRNA may be spliced out, therefore multiple mRNAs with different codon sequence can encode the same gene. 2: Translation is a stateful process, since it depends ...


6

The human skin is indeed made off a number of different layers, the three most important are epidermis, dermis and hypodermis (also called subcutaneous fat), see the figure (from here) for details: All three layers can be subcategorized further, I'll only give a few details here. More can be found for example in the Wikipedia article on skin. Epidermis: ...


3

Not in human but you can use this technique with genetically modified model organisms as described here. The procedure is quite simple, you express the luciferase enzyme under the control of a specific promoter (specific for your cell type, like cancer) and provide luciferin via intravascular or intraperitoneal injection. The targeted cell type (for example ...


2

Diabetes mellitus is divided into four type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and specific type of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is commonly called as Juvenile diabetes or Brittle diabetes. It is also called as "Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)". For our bad-luck the causes of Type 1 diabetes remains obscure, and scientists believes its mostly related ...


2

The tricky part is to define what is the volume of a biomolecule as it is a folded chain full of bumps and holes. Water is all around and in the folded structure and is actually important to keep the conformation of at least some of the proteins/RNA/DNA. At the same time we know that 60% of your body in mass is water. Let's visualize that. Bio molecules ...


1

According to the Molecular Biology of the Cell, (4th Ed), the cell is ~70% water, the remaining 30% of which is composed of macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates). While this is just a single citation, there are lots of other sources in the literature that cite similar values.


1

Mitochondria produce a large quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the mitochondrial genetic material. These cell organelles do not have a DNA repair mechanism, so the fusion and fission of mitochondria work together to maintain as many viable/healthy mitochondria as possible. When two mitochondria fuse, their genetic material can recombine ...


1

As you note, "Monera" includes both Bacteria and Archaea -- but genetic analysis and molecular comparisons reveal without a shadow of a doubt that Archaea share a more recent common ancestor with Eukaryota than they do with Bacteria. Consequently, "Monera" is a paraphyletic group, not a proper taxonomic category. Thus the term has been abandoned in favor of ...


1

I'm surprised this term shows up much anymore. Though it's a part of history now, the following paper by Woese demonstrated the three domain system long ago. This, however, is the net result of the sequenced genomes of eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria: Source: Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life. The phylogenetic ...


1

This is a fair question, his text or source words it funny. To keep it simple, the nuclear lamina is a network of filaments inside the nucleus and it includes the proteins associated with the nuclear membrane. It's connected to the inner face of the nuclear lipid bilayer that makes up the nuclear envelope whereas the outer face is continuous with the ...


1

Watch this animation and you'll understand the general process of mitosis: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/mitosis.html


1

Examining the literature it'd seem that the ROR pathways incl. ROR1 and ROR2 are critical for developing tissues in the majority of cases. We also see relevance in the expression of ROR1/2, more specifically ROR2, in cases where taxic cell types are required to migrate, branch, etc. Most of the literature determines much of this occurs through a noncanonical ...


1

Two things... Rapidly proliferating tissues (esp tumours) rewire their energy metabolism anyway to aerobic glycolysis where you have energy being produced by lactic acid fermentation even if oxygen is present. This is called the Warburg effect.Here's the thing about "low yield" though - glycolysis chucks out less ATP per reaction at the end, but you can ...


1

I think you should start with immortalized cell lines and so in vitro division rates by perfect conditions. This is easier to measure than in vivo division rates. E.g. HeLa has a division time of 23 hours. MDA-MB-231 and A549 division times are around 28 hours. Growth of HeLa Cells Comparative Analysis of Dynamic Cell Viability, Migration and Invasion ...


1

First of all MHC stands for major histocompatibility complex. There are two types of MHC. Type one is present on all of our cells with a nucleus. These purpose of these protein complexes is called antigen presentation. T-cells cannot recognize free antigens on their own, it has to be presented to them in proper way. This is what these proteins do. In our ...



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