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Enzymes have two benefits over raising the temperature: First, reducing the activation energy by reusable enzymes is far more energy-efficient, apart from the fact that the required temperature would vary for different reactions. Second, enzymes are able to be controlled by allosteric mechanisms, which facilitates metabolic control by feedback loops, ...


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The most essential thing for a cell to survive is a membrane. Without a membrane there is no boundary between cell and its surroundings. A selectively permeable membrane is needed for cells (from single celled organisms to elephants and giraffes and whales) to survive. Cells will die quickly on removal of cell membrane. The RBCs are good example of cells ...


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According to Google Scholar, there were ~40000 hits for "apoptose" and ~120k hits for "undergo apoptosis" in published literature, both of which had significant numbers of high-impact articles. Therefore, it is clear that both expressions are sufficiently used in literature for either to be used. Personally, I would say "undergo apoptosis" being both ...


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The enzyme does only one thing: It lowers the activation energy which is necessary for the specific reaction to happen. It does not change the speed of the reaction, nor does it change the rection enthalpy or the quilibrium of the reaction. See the figure for clarification (from here): Without the enzyme the Ea (activation energy) would be so high, that ...


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Ventricaria ventricosa (previously called Valonia ventricosa) is not exactly a single cell. It has a coenocytic structure with multiple nuclei and chloroplasts. As Jasand Pruski correctly guessed the organism possesses a large central vacuole which is multilobular in structure (lobules radiating from a central spheroid region). The entire cell contains ...


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By reactions there is an energy barrier called activation energy. Your substrate molecules have kinetic energy (they move, rotate, etc...), so when they collide properly, their kinetic energy can be used to overcome the activation energy and so the reaction takes place. According to the Arrhenius equation the reaction rate depends on the temperature, which ...


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The chromosomes copy at S phase. So S/G2 checkpoint up to early anaphase has 2n. You are on the right track to understanding the cell cycle, important to note the differences between homologous chromosomes (homologous pair) and sister chromatids, while understanding ploidy. During S (synthesis) phase which occurs between G1 and G2 , all the somatic DNA ...


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Diabetes mellitus is divided into four type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and specific type of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is commonly called as Juvenile diabetes or Brittle diabetes. It is also called as "Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)". For our bad-luck the causes of Type 1 diabetes remains obscure, and scientists believes its mostly related ...


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This is a fair question, his text or source words it funny. To keep it simple, the nuclear lamina is a network of filaments inside the nucleus and it includes the proteins associated with the nuclear membrane. It's connected to the inner face of the nuclear lipid bilayer that makes up the nuclear envelope whereas the outer face is continuous with the ...


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Watch this animation and you'll understand the general process of mitosis: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/mitosis.html


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The key is specialization: e.g. some cells specializing in getting food, others in producing something sticky to keep them together. Which cell does what is usually determined by chemical signals: depending on their specialization they produce particular chemical compounds. So if a non-specialized cell notes that one compound is rather low because the ...


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Cells can survive without ribosomes, but they would accumulate damage and be unable to restore worn out or exhausted supplies of any proteins they may require. The ribosome is necessary to be able to perform protein translation from RNA. Thus, if the cell can survive without protein, then it would be able to survive without ribosomes. No known organism that ...


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Trypsin is a protease, an enzyme that cuts other proteins. It is used in cell culture to help lift cells from a plate by cutting the proteins that hold the cells to the plate and to each other. Trypsin can go bad because a trypsin enzyme can cut other trypsins, eventually destroying the batch's enzyme activity. This is why trypsin must be kept frozen. Of ...


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You can see this protocol for Wolbachia isolation: See this protocol for infecting cell lines with Wolbachia. In this study the authors have established a cell line from a Wolbachia infected tissue of Aedes albopictus. You can have a look at that too.



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