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Clostridium botulinum toxin is present ubiquitously in soil. As such it is more than plausible that hay bails, which come into contact with soil can and I should expect almost probably will be infected with these bacteria. However it is not the mere presence of the bacteria itself which causes poisoning, it is the toxins they produce when the appropriate ...


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As an addendum to Spinorial's answer, and after some research, the Center for Food Security and Public Health specifically lists hay / grass / decaying vegetable matter as a potential source for C. botulinum growth in their (very informative) Botulism PDF. All species of Clostridium can produce spores, dormant forms of the organism that are ...


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For this specific question, let's divide the cells into two categories: Cells that rarely "navigate" are the cells that are connected to give the tissue its mechanical properties. How do these avoid an "adverse stimulus"? Well, they don't avoid it. But if that stimulus "harms" cells they react in some way: if the cell is destructed by the pathogen, it ...


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Here are some examples: symbiosis between genetic modified yeast cell populations (Shou W et al. 2007) symbiosis between green algae and embryonic chick connective tissue (Buchsbaum R et al. 1934) symbiosis between EcoBot II and microbial fuel cells (Ieropoulos, Ioannis, et al. 2005)


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A few things you have to realize when you ask 'why hasn't species x evolved trait y': What is the cost of evolving this trait? If you gain one trait, you lose another (or others). Everything in evolution is a tradeoff: that's why you're not nine feet tall, you'd be able to beat up all your enemies great, but it would take so much food to sustain you, it ...


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More like a comment: It doesn't seem that such a database exists, but I think it's relatively easy to create a list of multicellular taxa and the rest should be considered unicellular. Since you use ncbi taxonomy, you can easily get higher-level parent for any species, so there is no need to define cellularity for individual species. The challenging groups ...


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Do not forget domesticated animals that we now keep as pets. It's not unreasonable to argue that the relationship between dogs/cats and humans has a symbiotic character. The pet gets foodand shelter whereas the owner benefits in other ways, e.g. companionship, deterrence of enemies, herding,...


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Your hypothesis is incorrect. You must be assuming that lactamase destroys the antibiotic with perfect efficiency. This is incorrect. You must be assuming that the population will remain genetically stable. This is doubly incorrect. Firstly the penicillin will select highly resistant bacteria which suffer a greater fitness burden from expressing the ...



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