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1

Since posting, I did some more research using background refs from the intro (who knew?). The trick seems to be that when protons are pumped out, the cell regenerates them from water in order to maintain pH. So the solute concentration DOES increase inside the cell with more Na/H transport.


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I was musing on this and did some strange googling, and have some ballpark figures for a bunch of different organisms. It's far from a complete answer but it's at least a start, and all this won't fit in a comment. DNA replication, I assumed, was a huge metabolic drain on the cell. Turns out that is far from the case. Many helicases are passive, requiring ...


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High intracellular glucose. Affects: all cells that do not depend on insulin to take in glucose. Examples: neurons [1], kidney cells, retina cells. Causes: high extracellular glucose (in most cases hyperglycemia) Effects: promoting necrotic cell death through $H_2O_2$ (peroxide) formation, which may participate in the development of diabetic ...


1

Too much glucose leads to the formation of advanced glycated end products, which deposit in tissues like glomerulus and cause disease like diabetic nephropathy. Also glucose is osmotically active, so when it starts appearing in urine (because of its high levels in blood), it leads to polyuria, following which the lost water is recovered from body tissues, ...


1

Glucose transports from the blood into the cells via facilitated diffusion. This means that glucose goes from higher concentrations (in the blood) to lower concentration (in the cell). Therefore, if you have super high glucose concentrations in the blood, you will have a ton of glucose in the cells. Glucose will oxidize by itself, thus it will contribute a ...


2

The glucose can react with proteins, damaging them. This is called glycation. Note that glucose is the preferred body fuel and has a 10 fold lower ability to cause glycation than fructose. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycation


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Well, The paper published in Nature 2003: Despite two decades of progress in understanding the role of LGs and their contents in epidermal barrier function, almost nothing is known about the mechanisms responsible for the assembly of these unique organelles.source: http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v120/n4/full/5601763a.html Since then the word ...


1

RNAeasy kit will not usually give phenolic contamination. Your poor 260/230 is perhaps because of low yield; check the absolute absorbance values. Low 260/230 (and low yield) also happens because of improper lysis. I would advise that you do the cell lysis using more effective methods. I would not advise another phenol-chloroform or alcohol precipitation ...


0

Some might think that this is a chemistry question, and indeed most of the work is done in chemistry departments, but that isn't because its not biology. As far as evolutionary theory, there is a well-established definition of life as self-replicating systems and very little else. Richard Dawkins' theory of the Replicator is not always completely ...


4

Welcome to Biology.SE! Your question has nothing to do with evolutionary biology Evolutionary Theory does not explain the origin of life just like the Theory of Gravity does not explain the diffraction of light! In other words, explaining the origin of life is not within the scope of evolutionary biology. You should edit your title. But still, your ...


1

There are some inhibitors in the cell, which have specific effects on signal transduction. These are mostly second messengers (like cAMP, cGMP, calcium ions, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and others), which are then able to diffuse relative fast to other proteins. There they can either amplify a signal or cause inhibiting processes to start which then ...


0

Recently i came across this text file which has Kingdom,Phylum etc. https://app.box.com/s/hsmvie7vgjdj1z3g0iuf


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More like a comment: It doesn't seem that such a database exists, but I think it's relatively easy to create a list of multicellular taxa and the rest should be considered unicellular. Since you use ncbi taxonomy, you can easily get higher-level parent for any species, so there is no need to define cellularity for individual species. The challenging groups ...



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