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2

"Is it the phosphate group, or the molecule, that is derived from ATP ?" The Phosphate group is derived from the ATP molecule (thus why Adenosine triphosphate) NOT from the molecule it would be attaching the phosphate group to. Phosphorylation - The process of taking this phosphate group and adding it to another molecule in the energy chain. I hope this ...


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The question is a bit unclear, it should be reframed as suggested by AliceD. To simply answer the question, Glucose is the substrate, and in the first step it is converted to Glucose-6-phosphate. Only the Phosphate group is added which originates from ATP, your notes also are a bit misleading because it tends to suggest that Hydrogen is released, which is ...


0

By "still work" I assume you are asking if it will still be recognized by an antibody? It might. Internal T7 tag fusions are done, though they may require different antibodies than terminally tagged fusions. That said, do you have a reason for inserting the the tag after methionine? The T7 tag already starts with methionine and naturally functions to ...


-1

You need a ribosomal binding site before the initial codon.


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The T7 tag is the first 11 amino acids of the T7 gene 10 protein. Basically, if you engineer a protein with the T7 tag, you've engineered a small, known epitope to the protein of interest which may be detected immunologically. The small size of the epitope reduces the chance it will disrupt the protein's normal function (to which it's tagged). If we look at ...


2

Classical cell culture is a monolayer of cells on the surface of a cell culture dish. These cultures differ strongly from the microenvironment which cells have in tumors, as the cells only interact with their direct neighbours, but have otherwise a relatively optimal supply of nutrients and oxygen. In a real-lige tumor a cell mass is growing uncontrolled ...


2

They are tridimensional cell cultures according to H Ma et al. 2012. Multicellular tumor spheroids are one of the classic 3D culture models that can be applied to the development of anticancer drugs and treatments. By mimicking the 3D network of the cellular–matrix and cell–cell interactions, tumor spheroids resemble many aspects of the pathophysiologic ...


7

You're basically confusing the fuel source with the energy it produces. For example, a car burns gasoline. That doesn't mean that gasoline is energy, only that gasoline can be used to produce energy. Similarly, a cell uses electrons in the production of ATP (source): In the image above, electrons flow (symbolized by the flat arrow going from ...


0

This is a hard question to answer. Electrons and energy are different concepts. My overly succinct answer is that the movement of electrons results in free energy changes.


2

Found the following on wikipedia. Seems pretty self explanatory: The Golgi, ER, and lysosomes are likely to have evolved as a result of the plasma membrane going through invagination. An increase in the overall volume of a cell would require the plasma membrane to fold in order to maintain a constant surface area to volume ratio. These folds may ...


2

Another example of multinucleated cells is osteoclasts, which are specialized derivatives of macrophages that degrade bone matrix. They form by fusion of mononucleated progenitors and can accumulate many nuclei in a single large cell. In cell culture with mouse macrophages, it's common to obtain individual osteoclasts with 50-100 or more nuclei each.


1

This is an old question by now, but thought I'd give it a shot anyway. I am guessing the "insides in and outsides out" refers to maintaining intracellular concentrations of nutrients and other important molecules. The cell does spend a lot of energy to maintain high concentrations of amino acids and other key metabolites in the cytoplasm. The cell membrane ...


1

This review 22 proteins in the NOD like human repetoire. It was published in 2013... The families are broken down into 9 general groups according to their domain composition in Figure 1 from that review. Most of them are not named "NOD".


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Endless Form Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo introduces the reader to several classic embryology experiments and some key principles too. I'll edit this answer when I find more books or reading material of this nature.


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It is of use. They're saying that naive T cells cannot be activated by normal cells because the latter lack the appropriate co-stimulus, namely B7. However, activated CD8+ T cells can recognize antigens presented by normal cells and form a response. This is how cytotoxic T cells are able to eliminate transformed or infected cells.


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Would you consider the New York Times a suitable level of detail (while admittedly not a book)? If so then you may want to peruse this collection: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/biology_and_biochemistry/index.html You will have to be selective. This was my first hit in Google searching for 'lay articles on biochemistry.' I would ...


7

To be specific: I am talking about adult, somatic gene therapy here, and germline gene therapy experiments is still a landmine when considering ethical reasons. The defective gene codes for a defective protein, that usually plays a part in pathways. Since the protein is also defective, that pathway is also rendered defective because of this protein, and ...


1

Gi and Gs have a structurally different sub unit in their alpha chain. The receptors for PGE1 and adenosine interact with inhibitory Gi, which contains the same β and γ subunits as stimulatory Gs but a different α subunit (Giα). In response to binding of an inhibitory ligand to its receptor, the associated Gi protein releases its bound GDP and ...



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