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Shear stress $\tau$ in this small sizes is usually measured in dyne/cm2 or N/m2 = Pa. The equations betweeen them: $1dyn/cm^2 = 10^{-5}N/cm^2 = 0.1N/m^2 = 0.1Pa$. What kind of damages zygotes can suffer by pipetting? Using scanning electron microscopy, we found open holes on the surface of lysed eggs, indicating failure of the plasma membrane to ...


Clones are genetically identical daughter cells from one parent cell. So when you start you culture from one cell, all new cells are clones of this cell. The first three cells (red, green and blue) undergo clonal expansion. If you multiply cells in cell culture you usually start with thousands of cells, as this can be seen in the second part of the ...

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