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Found the following on wikipedia. Seems pretty self explanatory: The Golgi, ER, and lysosomes are likely to have evolved as a result of the plasma membrane going through invagination. An increase in the overall volume of a cell would require the plasma membrane to fold in order to maintain a constant surface area to volume ratio. These folds may ...


Remember that the action potential gets more positive in the first place, so increasing positivity is achievable. Net Na+ movement into the cell makes the potential more positive. This occurs as the Na+ gate (right on the image below) are open. The key message is that the membrane can move charge to cause an increase in either positive and negative ...

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