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Internal symmetry in this case refers to cases where a part of the protein structure can be superimposed (approximately) on another. It's not a strict mathematical symmetry, more a 'resemblance' For instance in the 12 transmembrane helix transporters, the first six helices are arranged similarly to the second six, such that if one were to cut the protein in ...


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I think you have misunderstood the "inside" part of the "positive-inside rule". Perhaps because "inside" is indeed an imprecise term (but now it is history and cannot be changed ;) ). In order to understand it a bit better it helps to think about the topology of the membrane. During synthesis most membrane proteins (ignoring peroxisomal and mitochondrial ...


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Endocytosis (specifically you asked about clathrin-mediated endocytosis) is indeed an energy consuming process. the coating of the vesicle may be "spontaneous", but the pinching off of the vesicle, the uncoating of the clathrin, and the transportaion of the vasicle inside the cell all require ATP/GTP hydrolysis. Dynamin - dynamin forms a spiral around the ...



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