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Steroid hormones are transported in an inactive form bound to proteins in the bloodstream. Androgens and estrogen are bound to Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), while glucocorticoids and progestins are bound to transcortin. References: Transport of steroid hormones: binding of 21 endogenous steroids to both testosterone-binding globulin and ...


0

Most ligands are synthesized as the same way as receptors integrated in membrane: synthesized on rough-ER, pulled into the lumen of ER. If proteins synthesized on rough-ER have a hydrophobic amino acid sequence, the hydrophobic region could stay in membrane because inside of membrane is hydrophobic and has affinity to hydrophobic amino acid sequences. ...


6

A perfectly reasonable definition of a ligand from Wikipedia: In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. A ligand can be anything, so long as it binds to a biomolecule. Often, the ligand is a small molecule or peptide, and the thing that it binds to is a protein. On ...


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In biology ligand is a very broad term. Everything is called a ligand that has a receptor for it, regardless whether it is free or membrane-bound. There is very much sense in membrane bound ligands, because many cells in our body are capable of actively moving around (for example T-cells). Cells can use signal transduction by direct cell-to-cell contact - ...



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