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Since the ability to utilize glucose for energy is necessary for life (look at the effect of hypoglycemia on brain function, for example), it makes sense that the regulation of serum glucose concentration would have a number of pathways, that is, redundancy helps to ensure continued proper function should one of the regulatory mechanisms fail. Glucagon is ...


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Recent nature neuroscience review on bipolar cells says that bipolar cells are classified into 13 (12 cone bipolar + 1 rod bipolar) different types. Depending on the polarity of their light response, bipolar cells can be grouped into ON and OFF cells. Answering your question, what are on bipolar cells used for ? ON bipolar cells predominantly depolarize ...



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