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When life evolved, first came heterotrophs that obtained their organic molecules from their environment. Then came autrotrophs who made their own organic lecyles. The most important autotrophs are photosynthetic organisms. These photosynthetic organisms lived in the water and made glucose from CO2 and H2O. A byproduct of this reaction was O2. Now, O2 ...


Pyruvate is negatively charged and quite polar, which makes it unfavourable to diffuse directly through any membrane. The outer mitochondrial membrane contains porins, which allow small molecules, like pyruvate, to passively diffuse through. Specifically, pyruvate uses voltage dependent anion channels. The inner mitochondrial membrane lacks such channels and ...

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