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The common hexoses do not differ much in energy content (meaning Gibb's energy of formation, $\Delta_f G$). But they have different structures and chemical properties. Glucose and galactose are aldehydes when present in linear form (they are tautomers), while fructose is a ketone, which gives somewhat different properties. They are also used in different ...


Prokayotic cells use anaerobic respiration. Glycolysis is the only stage of cellular respiration that does not occur in mitochondria. The glycolysis process does not need oxygen and uses anaerobic respiration. The other stages require oxygen and use aerobic respiration.


For glycolysis this is really not so much of an issue, because the ATP yield is fixed by stoichiometry. The early biochemistry work by Embden, Meyerhof, Parnas and other that mapped out the reaction mechanisms of the glycolytic pathway shows that you always obtain exactly 2 ATP per glucose; this is simply the stoichiometry of those reactions. There are a ...

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