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It is not uncommon for cells to have parallel pathways for same outcome. This ensures foolproof response and makes the system robust. E.coli also has another sensor for aerotaxis (Aer and Tsr proteins). See my answer on your previous post and the linked paper. Also look for coherent feed forward network motifs.


There are some recipes available on the web, my answer is based on this webpage and this information: The process itself is rather easy and you can either use ready bought apple juice, homemade juice or apple cider (basically unfiltered apple juice). You will need some specially cultivated yeast, baker's yeast is generally not recommended since it might ...


Nice question! Oxygen is actually not needed in the Krebs cycle - it is needed in the electron transport chain that is upstream of the Krebs cycle to regenerate NAD+ from NADH (see link). However, note that without O2 NADH accumulates and the cycle cannot continue as it needs NAD+ to run.

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