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9

There are only three kinds of optical receptors in the eye, but more than 900 kinds of olfactory receptors. Thus you can encode pictures with the three primary colors, but there is no small set of primary scents. To transmit a smell via "primary scents", you'd have to create an artificial nose that monitors the response of each of the olfactory receptors, ...


8

Free radicals are damaging because their unpaired electrons (or not fully filled valence shell) makes them highly reactive species. They are often considered together with highly oxidizing "reactive oxygen species" (ROS) such as peroxides. They are especially problematic for cell membranes and DNA. In the latter they can react with (oxidize) heterocyclic ...


6

An hormone is not different from most other molecules. To have an effect on a cell it binds to a (more or less specific) receptor, located either on the plasma membrane or inside the cell, and it initiates an intracellular cascade of events1. There are several ways an hormone can have different effects: there can be multiple receptors for the same ...


5

In expansion to biocs' excellent answer, I would like to highlight some practical limitations of this. Suppose we did manage to create a huge database of exact chemical mixtures which produce all smells recognisable by humans. You would still meet some complications: The output device (analogous to headphones or screen) would either need to be able to ...


4

Nice answer by Poshpaws +1. Free radicals can damage membranes (especially important for mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membrane function), DNA (genes, telomeres, and mitochondrial DNA, eg), and microsomes. These are the things we consider with regard to ROS for our research on aging. The role of diet is not clear. Smoking and alcohol may have ...


2

ROS can inflict DNA damage in cells and if this damage is persistant and cannot be repaired, the cell can undergo cellular senescence. Cellular senescence appears to play a major role in ageing (see here for example). When cells become senescent they can no longer divide and replace damaged tissue. Also, they secrete pro-inflammatory factors which can ...


1

In my view, the reason we can't transmit smell is that we don't understand it. That is, we don't have a solid understanding of how odor information is coded, so it is hard to imagine how to build a system that could reproduce that information. This is sometimes discussed in terms of a multi-dimensional "odor space," where each odor could be described by its ...



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