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25

Chart of C-values (the mass of DNA in a single haploid cell); there is no logical order to the groups: [source] Base pairs in haploid genome (some examples): Escherichia coli (bacteria): ~4.5 million Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode worm): ~100 million Humans (we all know what these are): ~3 billion Pinus taeda (coniferous tree): ~22 billion ...


21

Great question, and one about which there has historically been a lot of speculation, and there is currently a lot of misinformation. I will first address the two answers given by other users, which are both incorrect but have been historically suggested by scientists. Then I will try to explain the current understanding (which is not simple or complete). My ...


11

Note that anyone with a Y chromosome is considered a genetic male. Also, aneuploidy is usually a result of nondisjunction (but can have other causes as well) and is usually not inherited. 47,XXX is called Triple X syndrome and occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 female births. These individuals usually appear normal, but may have tall stature, a small head, ...


9

I think it is the wrong question. You assume that eukaryotes developed from a single-cell organism with circular DNA. Then, clearly, there must have been an advantage of (newly) developing a linear genome. But eukaryotes could have developed from an organism with linear DNA, too. There are still a few bacterial species with linear chromosomes, so this is not ...


9

The authors of this 2012 review article summarize the problem well in their introduction: In contrast to the tremendous advances in throughput, assembling sequencing reads remains a substantial endeavor, much greater than the sequencing efforts alone would suggest [22-24]. Large complex plant genomes remain a particularly difficult challenge for de novo ...


9

There is both an upper and lower limit which are species specific. The upper limit is caused by incomplete segregation of sister chromatids and subsequent trimming of the long arm(s). The reason for the lower limit is, as far as I can tell, unknown. Upper Limit Schubert I, Oud JL. 1997. There is an Upper Limit of Chromosome Size for Normal Development of ...


8

Each chromosome is a pair of distinct, separate DNA molecules. A chromosome of an eukaryotic cell nucleus is a (long) helix of two linear molecules and so has two ends, which are called telomeres. DNA naturally forms a double helix with its complementary DNA molecule, and the double helix can further curl in what are called supercoils. In humans, the ...


7

No, an external physical examination would be inconclusive. The reason is the TDF gene. To be more specific, if a person has XY and the gene is not active then the subject would have a female appearance. Also we cannot conclude that a person has a Y chromosome even if it has penis because that gene could be transferred on the X chromosome. Here is a ...


7

It is already mentioned by canadianer that genome size differs between organisms. But what about complexity? First we should define what complexity is: complexity can be defined as number of different cell types that a multicellular organism can produce, with the same genome. Yes complexity does not correlate with genome size. However, it seems to correlate ...


6

Regarding the Papers referenced above: If the authors maintain that the evidence at the site of fusion is not clear and that explanations as to how this happened are flawed that is possibly concedable. They would need to do more homework than these papers. The discussion of vestigial centromere sequences and telomere motifs being inverted is ...


6

Here is a paper you might want to take a look at: Phylogenetic Origin of Human Chromosomes 7, 16, and 19 and their Homologs in Placental Mammals From the abstract: From their origin, these chromosomes underwent the following rearrangements to give rise to current human chromosomes: centromeric fission of the two submetacentrics in ancestors of all ...


6

@nico is right. the number of chromosomes is the result of an evolutionary timeline, puncutated by sometimes spontaneous events which shape the DNA. These events occur in the course of evolution: 1) Chromosomal rearrangements. Large sections of the genome can flip around or become integrated in other chromosomes. By homologous recombination, regions of ...


6

Mycoplasma genitalium was one of the first full bacterium genomes sequenced and since its a symbiotic organism that lives on the moist and warm genital skin surface it doesn't need as many genes as many bacteria. It has a 582 kbp genome sequence with only 521 genes. But that is so 1995. The 159 kbp genome of Candidatus carsonella was published in 2006. ...


6

I got $26$% as the answer. To get a recombination between C and E, there are two possible mechanisms:- C and D produce a recombinant, but D and E remain linked, therefore the final genotype will be a recombinant considering C and E(Chiasmata between C and D). Here $P_1=P_{CD}\times P'_{DE}$ where $P$ is the probability of recombination and $P'=1-P$ ...


6

If really cystic fibrose is expressed only in homozygotes, then here are some possible explanations: Mutation very improbable Autofecundation very improbable False Negative when testing the father Because of the test False Negative Rate. @kmm made a very interesting comment below. He said that according to this article 75% of the mutations coding for ...


6

During the generation of gametes (sperm, eggs), chromosomes can cross-over - this swaps paternal and maternally-derived genetic material. So none of the descendant's chromosomes would be a direct copy of Einstein's, and furthermore, each offspring receives half of its genetic complement from each parent. This means that if you pool the DNA data from small ...


6

This depends completely on the quality of the DNA. Since each chromosome is essentially a very long strand of DNA, breakages and missing sections are very common in extinct species due to degradation over time. If a full DNA read is absent, no determination of chromosomal number can be performed. Assuming a full read (covering all breakages) of the DNA ...


5

I think the OP is asking why we have one less chromosome pair than chimpanzees (for example) [23 pairs instead of 24]. The is an abundance of evidence, as alluded to above by shigeta, that human chromosome 2 is the result of a telomere-to-telomere fusion of two ancestral chromosomes (IJdo et al., 1991). This event did not occur in our closest ancestors, ...


5

First of all, they are not caused by the same mechanism. They are both aneuploidies, but the mechanism is different. Turner syndrome happens when one of the gametes (most commonly father's) lacks a copy of X chromosome, or the X chromosome is heavily damaged. This means that while normal women have two X chromosomes, Turner women have only one, and nothing ...


5

I'm not sure about the ubiquity of this but, in many animals, each primary oocyte that undergoes oogenesis only produces one mature egg. The other products of meiosis are polar bodies, which are not fertilised. These cells often degenerate but can sometimes play supportive roles in embryogenesis. To answer your question, each mature egg is necessarily ...


5

The reason is that X-inactivation is not complete (Carrell & Willard, 2005; Ahn & Lee, 2008), and as many as 15-25% of X-linked genes escape silencing (Carrell & Willard, 2005; Cheng et al, 2005). This means that some genes on the Barr body are expressed in XX-females, although often at lower levels compared to the active X-chromosome, and this ...


5

In humans and mice anyway ,a lot of it boils down to the recognition of a specific sequence that marks recombination hotspots by PRDM9. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5967/836 Edit - I'm expanding in response to the comment below... Meiotic recombination occurs at vastly greater frequencies in some locations in the genome than others and these are ...


5

I think the picture will help you. In fact, to determine which kind of rearrangement for the chromosomal, we need to define an "orientation". However, this orientation is not fixed. It is a definition compared with the two chromosomes before and after the rearrangement. As the picture shows, the duplicated sequence after rearrangement should be in the same ...


5

They are not chosen, they represent an even half, a complete set of chromosomes. The entirity of a cells genes (found on the chromosomes) is called a genome. Somatic cells are the cells in our bodies that exclude sperm and egg. Sperm and egg are called germline cells. The billions of somatic cells in a homo sapien have the same 46 chromosomes. 23 ( ...


4

This link seems to have good information that answers most of your questions. In my mind, there are two types of mitochondria: ones that work and ones that don't. Mitochondria do have DNA but that mDNA is there to encode proteins for their specific functions (e.g. to create ATP). So, although the mDNA may not be uniform for every mitochondrion in your body, ...


4

Plants have a simpler anatomical structure than mammals (is anatomical the right word, or would physiological be more appropriate?). Mammals on average don't have more genes than plants, so my understanding is that this additional complexity is the result of finer and more complex regulatory mechanisms. When you remove or duplicate an individual gene in an ...


4

Answer An comprehensive online database of the chromosome numbers of all living species most likely doesn't exist. This Wikipedia article is the best and most complete reference comprising animals that I can personally find on the internet. This source in Spanish, which I've translated with Google Translate reads: Canedo Delgado (1999) performed the ...


4

You can package linear genomes much more efficiently than circular genomes, and bacteria simply don't require the information density to be prosperous. To be a bit more specific, it's the torque strain put on the double-helix while it's being wound that makes the difference. Linear genomes can be wound around Histones, and these Histones can be further ...


4

As @dd3 points out, average GC% indicates a need for stability and coding regions or structural regions of the genome may need to be more stable. But the largest %GC in genomes are found in thermophiles - organisms which live in high temperature water - in hotsprings and undersea geothermal vents. This review mentions how some thermophiles can be found with ...


4

Yes, here is an article on it: "The role of X-chromosome inactivation in female predisposition to autoimmunity" Below see the method and results summarised. Using a DNA methylation assay, we have examined the X-chromosome inactivation patterns in peripheral blood from normal females (n = 30), female patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases (n ...



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