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If no centromere split occurs during anaphase and consequently chromatids are pulled to one daughter cell, the possible outcome is during telophase the chromatids uncoils into chromonema which in subsequent divisions become supernumerary chromosomes.


You nailed it! Nomenclature Autosomal chromosomes Chromosomes are numbered based on their size (in base pairs). Sexual chromosomes Sexual chromosomes (when they exist) are defined as the largest number regardless of their length. Note that the definition of sexual chromosome can sometimes be a little bit troublesome (see this book). Exceptions It ...


The majority of normal autosomal genes have biallelic expression, i.e. the alleles on both chromosomes are used to make protein. This is why mutations in a gene which cause non-function of the product can be silent if the mutation is heterozygous (only found on one of the alleles), because the effect is masked by the second, fully-functional, copy of the ...

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