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Read "supply" as "carry action potentials to." When the action potential reaches the junction with the muscle (i.e., the neuromuscular junction), neurotransmitters are released into synapse. A similar membrane depolarization occurs on the muscle cell, ultimately leading to contraction. Nerves visible to the naked eye are actually bundles of individual axons ...


2

One pathology affecting the vagus nerve is autonomic neuropathy which can be secondary to several causes-one of the most commonly acquired cause is diabetes mellitus. It can manifest with various symptoms such as resting tachycardia (heart beating fast without exercise), exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis (delayed ...


1

As you mentioned, the resulting impairment depends on the level of the injury: nuclear, fascicular, central / peripheral. So, you should differentiate lesions inside the brain tissue (which can be at nucleus, at any location of a tract, before crossing or after, and outside. From this, the first thing we should explain is the normal anatomy. From normal ...



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