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5

Read "supply" as "carry action potentials to." When the action potential reaches the junction with the muscle (i.e., the neuromuscular junction), neurotransmitters are released into synapse. A similar membrane depolarization occurs on the muscle cell, ultimately leading to contraction. Nerves visible to the naked eye are actually bundles of individual axons ...


2

One pathology affecting the vagus nerve is autonomic neuropathy which can be secondary to several causes-one of the most commonly acquired cause is diabetes mellitus. It can manifest with various symptoms such as resting tachycardia (heart beating fast without exercise), exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis (delayed ...


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I just wanted to add, regarding CN VII. CN VII receives stimulation via the facial nucleus from both the ipsilateral and the contralateral corticobulbar tracts. The upper muscles of facial expression (particularly around the eyes) receive stimulation from both the ipsilateral and the contralateral corticobulbar tracts. The lower portion of the face is ...


1

As you mentioned, the resulting impairment depends on the level of the injury: nuclear, fascicular, central / peripheral. So, you should differentiate lesions inside the brain tissue (which can be at nucleus, at any location of a tract, before crossing or after, and outside. From this, the first thing we should explain is the normal anatomy. From normal ...


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We can somewhat rule out reason 1 because fingertips are also highly sensitive to sensory stimulus. Moreover innervation is not solely about sensory inputs but also motor functions, visceral control etc. All the nerves required for the motor function and a significant portion of visceral control nerves connect to spinal cord. Therefore in my opinion reason ...


1

I know the vagus nerve is linked to ulcerative colitis, which could have serious effects on the brain due to body-wide inflammation. You could probably search "vagus nerve" "colitis" and "neuroinflammation" and get some good papers on pubmed.



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