Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

15

There is some evidence that fetal development under zero gravity conditions might be problematic. Wakayama S, Kawahara Y, Li C, Yamagata K, Yuge L, et al. (2009) Detrimental Effects of Microgravity on Mouse Preimplantation Development In Vitro. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6753. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006753 The paper is here. These authors studied aspects of ...


13

From a certain point of view you could argue that our bodies have an inherently limited lifespan; Telomeres are extensions to the end of chromosomes that prevent damage or loss of genetic information during cell division. Telomeres are not replaced (in normal cells), which gives rise to a replicative lifespan; the number of times a cell can divide before ...


12

Seeds are spread by many mechanisms Wind dispersal: When air currents used to spread seeds. Often these plants have evolved features to facilitate wind catching, for example dandelions. Aka, anemochory. Propulsion & bursting: When seeds are propelled from the plant in an such as in these videos. This is called Ballochory. Water: Similarly to wind ...


10

First of all: Yes, fluoride is toxic, but the toxicity depends largely on the form (soluble vs. unsoluble, which fluoride salt etc.) occurs. It also depends on the environment since insoluble salts which are subjected to strong acids can release fluorine ions. The certain toxic dose for adults is 32-64mg/kg body weight, a 75kg adult needs to take up between ...


8

Cell-cell adhesion is a well-regulated mechanism, cells don't just stick together randomly, this interaction is mediated by specific molecules on the cell surfaces. The responsible proteins for that are the Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) like integrins, cadherins and selectins. Which of these CAMs are present on the surface of a cell determines if those ...


7

The answer is more or less yes. Normally Firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus) go through 5 nymph instar stages (as do most Hemiptera), where they resemble the adults more and more as they grow. Only adults are winged and have have functional reproductive organs. This type of metamorphosis is called hemimetabolous or simple metamorphosis (in contrast to ...


6

Cell differentiation, cell fate and cell mapping is an interplay of accessible evolutionary strategies/programmes and responses to dynamic environmental cues such as specialized hormones (e.g. morphogens) and physical parameters and constraints. That is putting it very broadly. It is a complex issue, if L. Wolpert's PLOS assays are any indication. I compiled ...


6

This is a very interesting question. Many people have researched this topic, and many still are. But regardless, I had never heard of Alan Turing's contributions, so thank you! First of all, I cannot actually find who first coined the term morphogen. Though people had hypothesized that chemicals could play a critical role in development through much of the ...


6

No, fish scales are dermal (= formed in derma) bones like skull roof bones. Scales in reptiles are formed by epidermis and are made primarily of protein (from keratinocytes), being similar in derivation to hair, feather and nails. On the other hand, in reptiles one must differentiate between scales and osteoderms (= scutes). Scutes are widespread among ...


5

Many genetic studies in this area have found that variation in serotonin receptors associates with differences in a number of personality traits. That one gene, or a very small number, turns up time and time again for something so complex as human personality makes me a bit suspicious. Other factors at play: Family dynamics Culture and cultural norms ...


5

No. In fact the lens of the eye, which is nearly optically perfect in humans, does not change or grow after it is fully formed around week 26 of gestation. Interestingly this is why one of the cues for identifying young children is having small faces with large eyes. This also the case for puppies and cats and other animals, who are mostly cuter when they ...


5

I don't know if this is what you mean, but take a look at BioNumbers. Also, mathematical constants like pi are different from physical constants. Mathematical constants are true in a mathematical (logic) sense, and do not need to be related to any physical quantity. They are derived by logic. Physical constants, on the other hand, typically describe an ...


4

The problem you are looking for is called the "Nature vs nurture" debate. Lots of scientists have written lots of books and papers and done lots of studies on the subject. As you can see, the title of the debate already includes the two main concerning factors: nature (genes) and nurture (environment). These of course each include a variety of ways in which ...


4

This is a very general question. The "developmental sequences" are just genes like any other. Like all genes they are semi-randomly distributed through the genome. While there are gene-rich and gene-poor areas in the genome, with some exceptions --notably the homeobox genes--, genes are not grouped by function. As to how they are accessed sequentially, that ...


4

Wikipedia has a page listing cell types which classifies their origin as endodermal or ectodermal. I haven't been able to find a source for a complete lineage of all cell types, and I have gained the impression that there is no complete picture, except in some specific cases such as the haemopoietic lineage. Here is a TEDX talk by a researcher in the ...


4

The urogenital system as a cohesive functional unit probably evolved very early in vertebrate history. Hagfishes and lampreys have separate systems for reproduction and excretion. More derived groups of fishes use kidney tubules and ducts for sperm delivery outside the body (Helfman et al. 2009). The vertebrate nephron may be homologous to the invertebrate ...


4

First of all, I should quote the sentence from the MOST reliable ophthalmology sourcing in the world - American Academy of Ophthalmology: Section 11 - "Lens and Cataract" "The equatorial diameter of the unfixed human lens measures 2 mm at 12 weeks and 6 mm at 35 weeks. Both the growth and the maturation of lenticular fibers continue throughout life." The ...


4

Indeed a very good question. I'm afraid it might remain without a proper anatomy-based answer, but my intuition would tend towards agreeing with "the smaller you get, the more deviation you'll find". Or rather, I would expect the same principle as in conservation of genetic patterns to apply here: the more central a tissue structure is to survival, i.e. the ...


4

That is highly unlikely. The article to which you linked specifically states: While watching other people exercise may increase your heart rate and have other physiological effects, nothing can replace the health benefits of getting off the couch. With proper nutrition, muscle is built through exercise by adding sarcomeres [to muscle cells which ...


3

It's old and I can't get access to this issue of the Annals of the New York Academy of Science, but it looks like it has some relevant information. Sifting through the abstracts it seems the vasculature of the fetal liver is completed at around 8 weeks although is still different to the adult vasculature because of the umbilical vein. The growth of the organ ...


3

Hands are complicated and the genetic machinery behind their shape doubly so. It's easier to figure out worm segments first, and then work up from there. An egg has head/tail information encoded in it even before fertilization: see here You can imagine the first or second cell division would give a 'head' cell with higher concentration of head polarity ...


3

Just so that someone answers this question so that the moderators have less work to do: The fundamental reason why embryos don't get massacred by the maternal immune system is because of the placenta and several of its functions. Three mechanisms are: 1) Secretion of neurokinin B, which is also secreted by parasites to avoid detection of the host. 2) The ...


3

Shuster, SM & C Sassaman (1997) Genetic interaction between male mating strategy and sex ratio in a marine isopod. Nature 388: 373-377 As described in this paper, the chromosomal system of sex determination in Paracerceis sculpta is ZW=females, ZZ=males. Genetic evidence indicates that the morph of a ZZ male is determined by a second locus, Ams ...


3

Osteocytes attach to each other by cytoplasmic extensions through gap junctions [1]. The connections between these cells are formed since they were osteoblasts and osteoid-osteocytes (type II preosteocyte) [1]. Osteoblasts have a greater volume than osteocytes and the lack of extracellular matrix favors their adhesion. As they begin to synthesize ...


3

There are two good papers on this that I like a lot: Noise in Gene Expression: Origins, Consequences, and Control Cellular decision making and biological noise: from microbes to mammals. I think they can tell you better than I can, but the major other source of noise is extrinsic noise. Extrinsic noise typically is taken to means two things (both of ...


2

I would think this is very much still "used." 60 years later, we finally have the first experimental support for it: In this blog article about this journal piece the authors studied the ridges that form on the roof of mouse mouths. They manipulated the signaling molecules that induce their formation and observed changes in line with Turing's theory. Of ...


2

First let me agree with the commenters that your question doesn't really make sense. Nonetheless here's an example that you may find interesting. Arachnocampa are insects that spend almost their entire lives as larva. These larva spin silk trap lines which capture and poison prey. They can only live in windless places (wind will mix up the lines) so to lure ...


2

These two papers[1] [2] argue that bcd is a direct activator of hb, although be aware that this does not rule out downstream events feeding back to further activate hb. (In fact, given the complexity of the embryonic gene network, it is likely that both mechanisms have a role.) Struhl G, Struhl K, Macdonald PM. 1989. The gradient morphogen bicoid is a ...


2

Furthermore the genotype of the individual does not represent the phenotype, it is about the expression profile of the genes rather than just their presence.


2

I would like to add to Lo Sauer's nice answer but give a slightly different perspective. What you referred to as the "brain" of the cell, is mostly its regulatory program. An abstract way to think about the regulatory program is like a computer, or mathematical function, which gets input (in the form of signal molecules inside and outside the cell) and ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible