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17

Coffee does have an effect on the peristaltic movement in the bowel. Coffee increases rectosigmoid motor activity within 4 min after ingestion in some people. Its effects on the colon are found to be comparable to those of a 1000 kCal meal. Since coffee contains no calories, and its effects on the gastrointestinal tract cannot be ascribed to its volume ...


15

No, you cannot live off of semen. A source from Columbia.edu: A typical ejaculation fills up about one teaspoon; the actual amount is determined by a man's age (younger men usually make more semen), when he last ejaculated, and how long he's aroused before ejaculating, among other factors. Contrary to what you've heard, semen is not loaded with ...


14

The red colour of blood isn't actually to do with food at all. The primary purpose of the blood is to carry oxygen to all the cells that require it to release energy. Red Blood Cells are filled with an iron containing pigment called haemoglobin. When it has oxygen bonded to it, haemoglobin has a bright red colour - it is this that gives blood its red ...


13

I wouldn't say that a human is "likely" to get sick by drinking from a puddle, I'd say "at some risk". It isn't desperately dangerous, although don't take that as a recommendation. There are many infections you can get from water (bacterial, viral, amoebal, and I presume fungal). You don't want to risk them, but probably won't actually encounter them in that ...


12

There are two types of food poisoning: Alimentary intoxication This is the case when you consume food which is contaminated with some toxins, and those are responsible for development of the poisoning symptoms. The source organisms of these toxins might not be present anymore (killed by heating during cooking, for example). In this case there is no massive ...


12

The hoatzin has a digestive system that makes use of bacterial fermentation. Many other birds also consume grass, e.g. ostriches, ducks and geese. There's also a large body of literature on how birds can digest cellulose.


10

During putrefaction of animal tissue, lysine is decarboxylated into cadaverine and arginine is decarboxylated into putrescine. These compounds are deemed to be toxic. A serving of meat contains 8 g of protein, corresponding to 640 mg lysine and a little bit less of arginine. Let's go straight and say that a spoiled meat serving contains 640 mg cadaverine ...


10

Trans fatty acids are digestible, but they cause an increase in LDL and a decrease in HDL, which is the leading mechanism for atherosclerosis. So, they increase the risk of a cardiac infarct. LDL means Low Density Lipoprotein, it's one of the 5 major lipoprotein groups. Lipoproteins carries the fatty acids and cholesterol which were absorbed from ...


10

Mucous-producing cells at the neck of the gastric pits create a layer of protective mucous covering the stomach lining. This mucous layer includes bicarbonate ions which act as a chemical barrier against the protons in gastric juice. See here for some evidence. I don't understand the second question; "Also, how does the stomach retains the safety ...


10

I'm sure it varies wildly based on the animal and what they're eating. In general, if in the course of an animal's natural feeding process it picks up a little dirt, it has evolved to cope with that. Animal's behaviors and guts have evolved to fit their food source and lifestyle. For a behavioral example, seals will eat rough rocks to help breakdown bones ...


10

First, there are two different isomers of the lactic acid, the L(+)- and the D(-)-form. Both differ in the position of the OH-group in the molecule: Both turn polarized light in different ways, the D(-) to the left and the L(+) to the right. The physiological form of lactic acid for the human body is the L(+) form, which is taken up in the gut and then ...


10

Satiety is complex, and there are several kinds of satiety, all of which come into play in different circumstances. Things that decrease or halt our eating are called satiety signals. Different satiety signals are put out by different substances (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) as well as by things like gut stretching and other signals. There is also a ...


10

Dizziness after eating, which can lead to falls and passing out, is called postprandial hypotension, and as the heart is indeed responsible for responding to hypotension by increasing it's rate - which can be seen in any number of clinical scenarios from blood loss to standing up too suddenly - failure to do so, for any reason including heart disease, can ...


9

Wow! What an interesting question! I did a bit of searching around, and here's what I found. It looks like the baby kangaroos, or joeys, do in fact produce excrement while in their mothers pouch. The mother kangaroo uses her tongue to clean her joey and her pouch. I found this information in a couple of differently places by doing a google search for ...


9

Yes, they do. For a look at survival of Lactobacillus and other bacterial species after multiple freeze/thaw cycles, check out Harrison 1955 (below). The awesome hand-drawn graphs show that many bacteria survive after being frozen for 11 weeks. There's also a figure on the following page showing that many bacteria also survive after multiple freeze-thaw ...


9

Short answer Various inhalants, most notably organic solvents including those used in paint and glue suppress appetite. Background From the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse I learned the following: Initial effects [of various inhalants] include nausea [...], and a loss of appetite. And the Humanitarian Irin News reports the following on Nepali ...


8

The hydrochloride ions are not what facilitate their absorption into the body. The HCl notation is from organic chemical reactions of a weak base (usually amines are involved here) with HCl to form a salt. The salt is what gets purified as a powder (otherwise the chemical remains in solution and can't be made into a pill/supplement). The bottle may say: ...


8

The bowel movements are influenced by a lot of factors. For example, when you eat a meal it induces a movement in your large intestines, to defecate and clear up space for new food. Also, there is MMC, migrating motor complex, which is responsible for the bowel movements when you are fasting. It causes a flushing effect, which prevents bacteria to ...


8

I would not expect this to be any different than other animals - they get the flora from the environment. Key components of the environment for newborns are: Birth canal Den / living quarters Skin / fur of mother, especially near the teats Diet Feces of family members (animals sniff this and aren't so clean)


8

The pressure that you apply when you push during a bowel movement derives from an increase in the pressure of the abdomino-pelvic cavity. You generate this pressure by closing the glottis (the opening to the lungs) and contracting the anteriolateral abdominal muscles (i.e., the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus). This reduces ...


7

I don't know about ruminants, but baby rabbits (and presumably other lagomorphs) apparently acquire the necessary intestinal flora by consuming their mother's cecotropes.[1] [1] Johnson-Delaney, C.A. (2006), "Anatomy and Physiology of the Rabbit and Rodent Gastrointestinal System" (PDF)


7

Quite a bit can be absorbed through the mouth. Most commonly, starches are broken down to maltose (two glucose molecules formed by a condensation reaction) and are easily absorbed by the bloodstream. A lot of other factors balance into this, ie pH, lipid solubility, and molecular weight. Generally, if a substance is easily dissolved in saliva, it can be ...


7

Animals do sometimes experience health problems from microbiologically polluted water. But they drink it, because they probably don't have as many options to choose from as humans have. Additionally, wilderness is very harsh, sick animals get eaten by predators quickly, so the short term evolutionary selection pressure in wilderness works very strongly in ...


6

The function of bile produced by the liver and concentrated in the gall bladder is to aid in fat digestion. Bile acts as an emulsifier to allow the fat to be packaged into small droplets, micelles. The breakdown of fats into small micelles greatly increases the surface area for lipases produced by the pancreas have to act on. These are then absorbed ...


6

How are diabetes and obesity connected in light of low lipase activity? Short answer: There's more than one type of diabetes. (And to complicate things, there's also more than one type of lipase. It's unclear from the question which type were mentioned in what you read.) Diabetes mellitus is usually divided into Type 1 (insulin-deficient) and Type 2 ...


6

Liver does all those functions as far as I know. The liver hepatocyctes are stimulated to create the enzyme glycogen synthase which promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the presence of insulin. Glycogen is stored in the liver after its production for further use. The whole process is explained in detail in this page. Regarding the storage of ...


5

As requested, elaborating this into a full answer. Three things to consider: "Alterations to gut microflora" need not only be the invasion of a different, aggressive species of bacteria. One of the most common, and most dramatic forms of alteration to our gut flora is something we do to ourselves: antibiotics. Most ecosystems, micro or macro, are pretty ...


5

The main reaction of fructose in liver is phosphorylation, catalyzed by ketohexokinase (UniProt P50053). In one paper with rats it was shown that fructose load can deplete the liver of nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, GTP) although ADP and GDP are inhibitors of the enzyme. This shows there is no effective regulation. M. I. Phillips, D. R. Davies: The ...


5

Coeliac disease is an immune disorder resulting from a reaction to ingested gluten (a protein found in wheat, barley and rye). It is associated with inflammation of the small intestine resulting in a generalised reduction in the capacity for digestion and absorption. According to this paper: Celiac disease is associated with pancreatico-biliary disease. ...


5

Lactic acid has been found to act as a fuel for the muscles. Refer to: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/16/health/nutrition/16run.html?_r=0 Most athletes consider lactic acid their enemy, and think that training helps eliminate the metabolic waste product from their muscles so the muscles will function longer and harder. But UC Berkeley physiologist ...



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