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Here's a bit of additional information (Although there's an answer from Ilan that satisfied you.) Is it the mould itself that makes us sick or is it something that the mould is releasing? What are the mechanisms that cause us to feel sick after eating mouldy food? The USDA says that there can also be bacteria along with the mould on the ...


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Urea is the major nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism, and its production reflects both the dietary intake of protein as well as the protein catabolic rate. The magnitude of these processes have a similar influence on urea concentration in the blood stream. Please note, that BUN, aka blood urea nitrogen is a misnomer, here plasma or serum urea ...


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Transcytosis is a process by which large macromolecules are transported across a cell, such as those in the intestinal epithelium. It is used by many toxins and even whole organisms to enter the body. Botulinum toxin also apparently uses this mechanism. I'm not sure how detailed of an answer you want, but the linked to-review is pretty in-depth.


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One of the most common toxins in mouldy food/bread is aflatoxin. The exposure to high amount of aflatoxin can lead to acute aflatoxicosis with fulminant hepatic failure and even death. While mild exposure to aflatoxin could be asymptomatic, it is better not to take a chance considering possible complications (cit. from the link above): Aflatoxins ...


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The quotes in the question provide incomplete information at best. Let's focus on the nitrogen (N) that comes from protein, ignoring for now how metabolism differs among amino acids. We'll assume for simplicity that liver function is OK so that the urea N production rate is a reasonable measure of protein N degradation rate (say in units like moles of N per ...


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The thing to remember is that no living system is 100% efficient. Firstly lets deal with your statement here: A positive nitrogen balance (where nitrogen balance = N intake − N loss) indicates a greater usage of proteins. Basically means what it says on the tin. If your body is utilising more nitrogen then it is giving out: Positive nitrogen ...



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