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The DNA solution has a fixed volume (e.g., 0.1 mL). To a suitable test tube is added 0.2 mL of buffer-saturated phenol. After closing the test tube the mixture is mixed well, typically using a vortex mixer, but possibly by careful, repeated inversion. The aqueous phase and the organic phase are barely miscible. The tube is centrifuged to speed up the ...


From a computer science perspective, there's nothing at all special about DNA. It's stored as a simple ASCII text file consisting of repetitions of 4-15 different letters. DNA, the molecule, is a long chain of nearly identical smaller molecules (nucleotides) joined together. The nucleotides differ only in which of four possible bases (A,C,T/U or G) they ...

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