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While physiological experiments could be conducted without organic solvents, chemical syntheses of DNA or analogs, chemical modification of DNA, and purification after chemical reaction could be performed in the presence of organic solvents. Such experiments are not directly relevant to physiology, but we use chemically synthesized DNA and DNA analogs. In ...


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DNA in pure water. The only time that nucleic acids would encounter pure water would be in a laboratory setting--for example after an oligonucleotide is synthesized in vitro, the protecting groups are removed from the reactive atoms in the finished sequence and the final product is cleaved from the supporting matrix. At that point you can lyophilize ...


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First of all, if this is a homework question, add that tag to it. And show what work you have done so far. Secondly, primers for amplifications should lie on opposite strands. Primers are typed in 5'-to-3' direction (aka left-to-right on leading strand). Appropriate primers will be: primer 4=GTG... and primer 5=GAA.... Note how those primers are always in ...


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You will probably want to read up on Position Frequency Matrices (PFMs) and Position Weight Matrices (PWMs). These tend to be much more sensitive and useful for pattern recognition in nuclei acid sequences. Two examples of databases with these patterns are TRANSFAC and JASPAR. Regex patterns can be useful in protein sequences sometimes, although PWM have ...


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Prosite (http://prosite.expasy.org/) uses regular expressions to search for protein domains, in contrast with Pfam. If you look at an entry, such as http://prosite.expasy.org/cgi-bin/prosite/prosite-search-ac?PDOC00022, you can see the consensus pattern under the PATTERN section towards the bottom. Prosite does not have the same coverage as Pfam, but the ...


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Regular expressions are not commonly used for DNA or Protein analysis, but many people use Hidden-Markov-Models (HMMs). If you are looking at protein domains, you can find many HMMs here: http://pfam.xfam.org/


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If you are adding phenol-chloroform extracted tRNA then that is a carrier for the precipitation steps. Some people use linear acrylamide for the same purpose.


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A genetic marker is, by empirical definition, something that you can unequivocally place on a genetic map. A genetic marker may be an allele of a known gene that confers either a dominant, or a recessive phenotype. Alternatively, a genetic marker could be either a restriction fragment length polymorphism--whose segregation can be detected by either a ...


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Genetic markers don't cut the DNA. They're simply regions of DNA sequence that happen to be variable between individuals (see my answer to your previous question). They might be measured using restriction enzymes (i.e. RFLP) to identify the exact difference, but it's not the marker that's cutting DNA. Furthermore, they don't necessarily cause disease. ...


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As hello_there_andy (and also the Wikipedia page) has indicated, genetic markers are DNA sequences that can be used to distinguish individuals (can also be tissues, cells, etc.). Linkage of a phenotype with genetic markers is used to identify regions of the genome that are likely causative for that phenotype, as hello_there_andy says, but there is nothing ...


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Genetic markers are sequences of DNA that tend to co-occur with some biological property, in a population. Examples E.g. Imagine you have 200 individuals in a population. 100 individuals have some sequence GGGCCCGGGCCC at some locus (position on the genome), and those 100 individuals have blue eyes. The remaining 100 individuals have AAATTTAAATTT, at the ...


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It is widely accepted that birds are in fact dinosaurs. Cladistically speaking, no DNA technology is required to create a living dinosaur, as they already exist. Assuming you want to do the same to a non-avian dinosaur (a paraphyletic group), however, a better idea would be to ask on World Building SE, as there have been little to no scientific research on ...



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