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6

To be specific: I am talking about adult, somatic gene therapy here, and germline gene therapy experiments is still a landmine when considering ethical reasons. The defective gene codes for a defective protein, that usually plays a part in pathways. Since the protein is also defective, that pathway is also rendered defective because of this protein, and ...


5

This "undifferentiation" is actually possible and it is known as induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). The first "undifferentiation" cells i.e. iPSCs were mouse fibroblasts created in 2006 by researchers in Shina Yamanaka's lab who got the Nobel prize in 2012 for this work. You can find further reading on this topic on the according Wikipedia-Page or more ...


4

Summary: In bacteria or organisms with only one well defined replication origin and a circular chromosome, yes for a given DNA region the same strand is replicated discontinuously. In high order animals, which replicate chromosomes using several origins of replication (ori), this is less clear as the way ori are recognized is still not fully understood but ...


4

Your germline DNA remains the same no matter what you do in the growth process (The DNA of a child is the same as the DNA of the adult). What does change is the expression of the DNA (transcriptomic profile), other regulatory factors (Epigenetic modifications), alternative forms of the same DNA expressed differently (splice site variations and alternative ...


4

I don't understand your calculations and I don't understand why you're trying to use Bayes formula. I don't know the $\frac{1-p}{2-p}$ formula and I don't understand what it is supposed to calculate. It seems to me that you're overthinking a simple problem. We don't have all the information and need to make a bunch of assumptions but if I understand the ...


3

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. Acid, by definition and mechanism in aqueous environment, is something that donates proton ($H^+$). HCl dissolved in water will donate proton to solution, thus bringing pH down, since $pH=-log_{10}[H^+]$. DNA, being an acid, donates protons to water and brings pH down a notch. Just like in case with HCl, it has nothing ...


1

If it was the case that we were inheriting damaged mtDNA, we would be inheriting ageing from our parents which in itself is not advantageous in terms of evolution.Considering that the germline mitochondria is purely maternal, nature has evolved a way to switch off the mitochondria of oocytes, and keep it in a simple state, mainly to serve as a template. This ...


1

If you're looking for a strictly and directly DNA-DNA mediated effect (no histones, no transcription involved) I'd look for sequence effects on chromatin remodelling, modulating access of transcription factors (TFs) to their elements. Something about this might be in this paper: Szerlong, H. J., & Hansen, J. C. (2011). Nucleosome distribution and linker ...


1

In the case of replication the parent strands do not pair up back into the original helix. Instead, as your picture and the one below show, the complementary bases are paired up on one of the parent strands, resulting in two copies, each with one parent strand and one new one. Source: Kathy's webpage on DNA


1

The traces you have come from Sanger sequencing. N in genetics means nucleotide (surprising right?). N is used when the base at a given location is unknown (or could be any base pairs). In your case you have Ns because the base-calling software is unable to determine the nucleotide. The first N is due to two peaks overlapping (G and A signals) and the ...


1

So the two Ns that you see are not necessarily variants, but rather likely just poor quality reads. Essentially when you sequence DNA and the sequencer can't make a call as to what the base is, it will just designate it N meaning that the base could be any of the four DNA bases. As for finding the reading from, if you know this sequence contains a stop ...


1

Short answer is that higher temperature favors annealing of longer sequences. There are number of ways to calculate melting temperature, but all of them produce similar results: longer polymers require more thermal energy to melt. Hence, quick cooling from higher (say, from 95C thermocycler can cool in 10-12 sec) to RT/4C will favor re-annealing of circular ...


1

mtDNA is present in a much higher copy number per cell than nuclear DNA. According to this paper, there are approximately 4000 or so mitochondrial DNA copies per human muscle cell. copy number of mtDNA per diploid nuclear genome in myocardium was 6970 ± 920, significantly higher than that in skeletal muscle, 3650 ± 620 (P = 0.006). This makes it far ...


1

Since DNA is an acid it is reasonable to ask: what is the pKa of the phosphate residues located all along the polynucleotide's sugar-phosphate backbone? Apparently that number is at a pH between 1 and 2 (http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/classes/biochem104/DNA_lecture.pdf). That means at physiological pH ranges (for example, the pH found inside the nucleus or ...



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