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Genome-wide variation from one human being to another can be up to 0.5% (99.5% similarity) Chimpanzees are 96% to 98% similar to humans, depending on how it is calculated. (http://genome.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTD020730.html) Cats have 90% of homologous genes with humans, 82% with dogs, 80% with cows, 79% with chimpanzees, 69% with rats and 67% with mice. ...


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There is no difference in base pairing between different kinds of organisms. Humans, animals and bacteria all share the same fundamental mechanisms as they all use DNA. Which bases can pair is determined by the chemistry of the individual bases. The bases in DNA form the following hydrogen bonds when they are paired: If you would try to combine other ...


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The problem with answering your question accurately is, one, the absorption of a phtoton is a quantum mechanical phenomenon with almost a random chance of happening, and two, once absorbed, a lot of photophysical processes can occur, mutation being only a small part of the available options. Thus, to quantify the threshold amount of radiation for mutation ...


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I think I have this figured out. Had to do some math. With our 4 nucleotide system, the number of possible codons is 43 = 64. That is number of nucleotides to the codon length power. The question asks us to determine codon length while giving us the number of amino acids and an upper limit on tRNAs. Using the same formula, #Nucleotides(Codon-Length) = ...


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I have read that cohesin is one of such enzymes, but works as a transcription factor by binding specific DNA motifs. Cohesin binding is not motif dependent (like transcription factors) and is also dynamic. Though sequence may have a role it is, just as in the case of nucleosomes, mostly the overall composition rather than a sequence based motif: ...


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To answer the question about nuclear envelope in G1 phase, yes it exists. The nuclear envelope is reformed at the end of Telophase after the 2 copies of the DNA are pulled apart, but before the two daughter cells are separated by cytokinesis. We can see the new nuclear envelope in these images: Image from here Nuclei visible near end of cytokinesis, ...


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The most important role of this peculiar double helix structure of DNA is to facilitate replication....in preparation of cell division each of the 2 strands acts as a template thus facilitating precise copying of genes....in the Nature(1953), Watson & Crick also suggested that " It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated ...


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The structure allows for the DNA to be tightly packed into chromosomes. It also provides an extremely stable backbone with the negatively charged phosphates pointing to the outside of the molecule. This charge aids in the attachment of other molecules to the strand of DNA. DNA double helix allows it to be stable and it won't easily destroyed.


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An embryo is called a fetus at a more advanced stage of development and up until birth or hatching. In humans, this is from the eighth week of gestation. However, animals which develop in eggs outside the mother's body are usually referred to as embryos throughout development; e.g. one would refer to a chick embryo, not a "chick fetus" even at ...


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No — typical DNA extraction will not preserve information about the biochemical state of the cell. During the process of DNA extraction, proteins are removed and DNA from a population of cells gets precipitated. Then you dissolve the DNA. In this process native conformational state cannot be preserved. However there are techniques (see this post) that ...


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As far as I know there are ongoing efforts to find genes that affect forensically relevant traits e.g. facial characteristics and fingerprint pattern type/ridge count, and it's definitely a topic of interest to some law enforcement agencies. However as previously mentioned, there are many factors that could influence complex traits, including in utero ...



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