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If the ladder is on an edge of the gel, it may be a process of different density as a result of how the gel cooled (or was poured too slowly). I've loaded more DNA loaded in a gel and it doesn't cause this kind of warping for me. It may be the buffer of the ladder is different from that used to make the gel. Your bands don't look particularly sharp, so I ...


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To add to the previous answers that treat specifically of the biological Darwinism, there is also Universal Darwinism which postulates that evolution is a natural phenomenon that appears when a set of conditions and constraints are present. And indeed, it has succesfully been applied to a number of fields (see below the quote), which seems to imply that ...


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The answer provided by Mike Taylor is just perfect and complete. However, I'd like to add some thoughts of my own in a more colloquial style: Survival of the fittest is not always true. There is also "survival of the luckiest" (e.g. the fittest is showing off in the beach with the other turtles and is struck by lightning). Reproduction is not that ...


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Any time a species has needed the development of a specific feature to survive, it has developed that feature, and that feature precisely. This statement is clearly false. The dinosaurs didn't develop what they needed, did they? It turned out that on this occasion, the mammals happened to be best adapted to the conditions at the time, just as ...


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Short answer version: It seems plausible to me that we (advanced life) could have a biological mechanism to "write" needed alterations into either our own DNA or our reproductive DNA over time, triggering the very specific evolutionary developments necessary to our survival without relying on random mutation. No, it's not. Despite what your ...


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About your question This kind of very basic question has the drawback to need a very long answer. In consequence your question might get some close vote. I'll do my best to help but you might want to look at some source of information as an introduction to evolutionary biology. A book eventually or Khan academy maybe. Darwin's evolution theory The ...


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This entire answer will be long, so read the short part first, then read the rest if you (or anyone else) is curious. Citations are included in the long section. I can include additional citations in the short section if needed. Long Story Short You're question touches on some common misconceptions about how the evolutionary process. Organisms don't "want" ...


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It is not unlikely that nicking is causing trouble. The question is if repeated freezing and thawing is causing the problem, there is an article which has been published in B.R.L. Focus in 1983 which disputes this effect. You can find the PDF with the article here, the article itself starts on page 10 in the PDF. On the other hand there is this paper ...


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Here is what the data says. UK government must have had some scientific evidence when it settled on a 10 variable-length sections of genome for their database, SGM+. In one such variable sections, some people have 10 repeats of CTTT, others have 11, others have 12 etc. The largest of those fragments, at its maximum length, are about 350 base pairs. The US ...


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When designing PCR primers we typically use a minimum length of 20 bases, because the probability of a sequence of N bases appearing by random is $\frac{1}{4^N}$, and $\frac{1}{4^{20}}$ is about 9x$10^{-13}$, or about 1 in a trillion. Since the human genome is a little over 3 billion bases long, a 20 base sequence should appear only once. However, most of an ...


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Yes, this is possible (and I have done it uncounted number of times) - the method is called "Freeze and squeeze". What you basically do is to run the gel, cut out the band of interest (be careful with the UV light, it causes damage to your DNA and also sunburns, so wear appropriate shielding for your face), dissolve it in a buffer, then freeze it in liquid ...


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That's a pretty neat video, I'll just give you some background information first. It's an illustration of the "trombone model" of DNA replication. The darker blue molecule is helicase, it unwinds the DNA and facilitates translocation (this is an ATP dependent process). The dark purple molecules are DNA polymerase, they catalyze DNA strand synthesis (an NTP ...


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Did you try googling "splice site recognition sequences"? In general, the first two letters of the intron must be GT, the next three are often ARG. The last three letters of the acceptor site of the intron are virtually always YAG


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RNA was almost certainly the first genetic molecule of inheritance. However, the single-stranded nature of RNA is not particularly stable and thus would not be reliable for the long-term storage of genetic information necessary for reproduction (and ultimately evolution). The necessary stability is provided by DNA. The question becomes, how did DNA evolve ...


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Imagine you want to produce a widget. You have thousands of worker, but only one blueprint. Each worker needs the blueprint to build a widget (they're really forgetful and can't build from memory). So only one worker at a time can build your widgets. What you would do is to create copies of your blueprint and distribute them to your workers. That way ...


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OK, I found this on Wikipedia. I probably should have checked there first! DNA has three primary attributes that allow it to be far better than RNA at encoding genetic information. First, it is normally double-stranded, so that there are a minimum of two copies of the information encoding each gene in every cell. Second, DNA has a much greater ...


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First as you mentioned, which is I think the key thing, is that you need to clarify what DNA sample it is that you are observing in the gel. The best thing to do to ensure that you only have PCR generated DNA samples is that once your PCR is over, treat your DNA mixture with Dpn I enzyme, which cuts methylated DNA, which is essentially cellular DNA as they ...


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This might be a good article to read: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497635 Robert Kerns's lab has been doing a lot of work on fluoroquinolines, so look into his other work as an entry to the literature. And apparently X-ray crystals have been done for at least parts of this complex. There is some evidence for fluoroquinolines binding to DNA, then ...


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After you check your gel it would behoove you to check primers, preparation, the quality of the XNA itself, then proper electrophoresis levels and other mechanical failures. I would think improper resistance of the electrophoresis wiring would cause your problem.


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Yes, that should be possible. And it is one of the ways antibodies work. It is already used as a treatment against rabies. There you get a dose of immunoglobulins directed against the rabies virus together with the vaccine. The immunoglobulins neutralize the virus. The same is possible when you vaccinate against the surface proteins which a virus uses to ...


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There is one simple reason for that, your agarose gel is most likely too dense. Depending in the type of agarose, I would prepare a 0.5-0.6% gel at maximum. Synbio gives this list for "standard" agarose, which fits pretty good with my experiences. If you use low melting agarose, this table looks a bit different, as the gel matrix is not a dense. The ...



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