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You could introduce multiple transgenes into your embryonic cell line before injecting into the blastocyst. That way you don't have to do it individually one by one and then breed them all together, which can take a lot of resources. This is especially necessary when your genes are really close together (genetic linkage) and hence would not breed in a ...


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That is an evidence that all the creatures share a same ancestor from evolution. About the origin of the genetic code, scientists proposed some hypotheses to explain it. Chemical principles: From the experiments, scientists found that some amino acid have a selective affinity to certain triplet codons. Biosynthetic expansion: The original creatures may ...


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Preamble Any answer regarding the origins of our biochemical evolutionary origin will be reasonably speculative given that this is a very hard question to scientifically test and this field is generally understudied to say it is pretty much the most fundamental biochemical question. But there are a few reasons why RNA makes sense as the prime genetic ...


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There is nothing called the 3' to 5' strand. Both strands are have the same polarity but the DNA helix is anti-parallel. Both the strands contain approximately equal number of genes. Sometimes the transcription from both the strands can overlap, leading to production of antisense-transcripts. So RNA polymerase will read the other strand from its 3' to 5'. ...


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Both strands have a 5' and 3' end. Some genes will be on one strand and some on the other. The coding sequence will always be 5' to 3', but RNA polymerase reads the template 3' to 5' to polymerize mRNA.


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@zeller The better answers are being sought in a field called Regenerative Medicine. A number of techniques have been tried, among them 3D printing of organs and dissolving the cells from a donor organ leaving the collagen scaffolding, then reseeding the organ with a patients stem cells in a bioreactor. Most of these technologies, unfortunately, are in ...


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The human genome is 3 billion letters long. Most of that sequence has nothing to do with tissue rejection. Only a handful of genes relate to tissue rejection, so those are what one might want to sequence, but even having the sequence doesn't necessarily tell you how the proteins are shaped, and it's protein shape that determines how they interact with each ...


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No they are not. High gene density is correlated with GC content. Most genes are found in GC rich isochores, which are not distributed uniformly (as can be seen on any karyotype). It is also shown through direct sequence analysis (gene density shown in red, GC content in green): Venter et al. go on to say: This inhomogeneity, the net result of ...


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Cancer cells generally lack the "safety mechanisms" or "check points" that prevent normal cells from replicating, and some of these mechanisms are also involved in ensuring that DNA replication proceeds without serious errors. Inactivating these safety mechanisms lets cancer to cells divide rapidly, but at the same time also causes their genome replication ...


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Smallest free-living bacterial genome: Nanoarchaeum eqitans at 491Kb (Waters et al., 2003) I downloaded this paper it says that this is archaea and its obligate symbiont not a free living bacteria. Please read carefully and then upload it.


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There are indeed massive evolutionary control systems integrated into DNA. They constitute the major force for efficient change in living beings. Random DNA mutations are not as beneficial as controlled ones, you can see random single gene mutations at work in medical books: Anemia, cancer, cheese smelling sweat, no sweat glands, skin conditions, scales, ...



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