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2

I'll have to disagree with Alan. If the plasmid is integrated into a chromosome it doesn't lose its episomal status. Actually the integration of the plasmid is a characteristic of an episome. This is a quote from this article: http://www.qub.ac.uk/mlpage/courses/level3/plasmidhistoryreview.pdf "... For a decade or more it was confused with ‘‘episome,’’ ...


3

No, it's not specific to the X chromosome. It's a general trend. CG sequences are underrepresented in mammalian genomes. In fact, the very nucleotides C and G are underrepresented. Instead of the ~25% you'd expect by chance, the real numbers for the human genome are (calculated on the hg19 version of the UCSC human genome): N: 234350281 = 7.5702% <-- N ...


6

@March Ho's answer is an excellent answer based on the assumption that all of the observed phenotypic variance is due to genetic variance. Environmental variance The genetic variance is not the only underlying variance that can explain variance in phenotypic traits. There is probably quite a lot of phenotypic variance that is caused by the underlying ...


3

I'm going to say the same thing as @Serine but in a slightly different context. Let's take an example where you want to compare smoking persons against non-smokers. In this context, you'd want to take a DNA sequence of smoking persons. However, due to technology limitation you won't get a single DNA sequence from the sequencing machine. You'll get millions ...


8

My understanding of those three words as follows: sequence is a generic name describing order of biological letters (DNA/RNA or amino acids). Both contigs and reads are DNA/RNA or aa sequences reads are just a short hand for sequenced reads. Usually sequenced reads refer to somewhat digital information obtained from the sequencing machine (for example ...


11

DNA is a bit more complicated than some molecules due to it's length and composition variability. Specific data is needed to quantify this accurately and other solvents are likely to be needed for a suitable solvent. Here is a server that can point you to a suitable solvent based on your specific sequence. Ultimately, organic solvents are likely to be needed ...


0

Basically, it is because DNA is so hydrophobic that it does not substantially catalyse reactions in aqueous solutions. RNA is less hydrophobic and therefore more able to catalyse aqueous reactions, but the same reactivity means that it is more susceptible to degradation and so less suited than DNA to the storage of genes. RNA is more polar and therefore ...


21

The uniqueness of irises and fingerprints are, as you said, limited to the number of possible permutations of irises and fingerprints. A similar problem exists in computer science, and is known as a hash collision. Given sufficient samples, there will always be a collision for a hash of finite size. However, the sample space is sufficiently large for iris ...


1

I'm interpreting "durability" as the DNA's resistance to physical stress, such as shearing. The Bustamante lab at UC Berkeley does a lot of very cool single-molecule biophysics looking at forces involved in protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA interactions. This Bustamante et al. review paper, Single-molecule studies of DNA mechanics includes a look ...


0

You could store DNA diluted in water at -20C for a very long time. The only problem with at home storage would be the type of freezer most households have. These come standard with defrosting feature, which thaws up the freezer to remove the ice accumulation... This would affect the stability of the DNA at long term scale. Having a styrofoam box to protect ...


1

If you have access to a laboratory (or at the very least a centrifuge and pipettes) and some laboratory experience you can extract the DNA from the cells which would be much easier to store. There are a number of commercial DNA extraction kits available that are easy to find on google and order online. I don't want to promote any particular brand but I've ...


1

All the mitochondria of an individual are originating from the mother. This means that if the mother is afflicted by a mitochondrial disease, the offspring will also be affected. This is why the three parent model is being considered in some cases (1). (1) Pritchard, C. (2014, September 1). The girl with three biological parents. BBC News. From ...


3

If it was the case that we were inheriting damaged mtDNA, we would be inheriting ageing from our parents which in itself is not advantageous in terms of evolution.Considering that the germline mitochondria is purely maternal, nature has evolved a way to switch off the mitochondria of oocytes, and keep it in a simple state, mainly to serve as a template. This ...


4

I don't understand your calculations and I don't understand why you're trying to use Bayes formula. I don't know the $\frac{1-p}{2-p}$ formula and I don't understand what it is supposed to calculate. It seems to me that you're overthinking a simple problem. We don't have all the information and need to make a bunch of assumptions but if I understand the ...


7

To be specific: I am talking about adult, somatic gene therapy here, and germline gene therapy experiments is still a landmine when considering ethical reasons. The defective gene codes for a defective protein, that usually plays a part in pathways. Since the protein is also defective, that pathway is also rendered defective because of this protein, and ...



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