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Entropy is a measure for the number of states accessible to a system. The more states available, the higher the entropy. If you think of an atom confined in a volume V, then, without further restrictions, the atom can be anywhere inside that volume, i.e. the number of states will be a function of the volume V. The bigger the volume, the bigger the entropy. ...


3

Ahh entropy. The bane of many undergraduates. You won't need a lot of mathematical rigor needed to solve for absolute entropies in most biological fields so it's best to think of it abstractly. Consider the atom. What can it do? Well if you remember from chemistry class, it can bounce around a process we call translate, and the electrons can basically ...


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As this table shows, the more complex a molecule is (in general) the more entropy it has. Entropy is an absolute quantity which is zero at $0^o K.$ When an atom or molecule has no way to rotate (is 'frozen') there is only one state in which it can exist. An atom of a gas or a molecule of a diatomic gas at $25^oC$ is also somewhat constrained compared to a ...


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I don't know if this is helpful in the context of moving from RNA to DNA world, but I do know that certain mutations to T7 RNA polymerase will allow that enzyme to use 2' deoxy nucleotides in addition to the normal ribonucleotides. These mutations were discovered by humans engineering the enzyme, but it's feasible that some transitional enzyme could have ...


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Why bother predicting proteins badly from DNA sequence when you could have just as well downloaded the manually curated human proteome? As to your questions: Are you asking about human genomes or genomes in general? The vast majority of the variance in human genomes is in non-coding sequence. As to genomes in general, they vary in pretty much every ...


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No, your approach will not work, you are taking a very simplistic view of an extremely complex system. Some of the problems you are ignoring are: Genes (eukaryotic genes anyway) are spliced to produce mRNA, a process that removes introns and leaves only the exons. If you just translate the entire chromosome file you will get noise. Splicing also changes ...


1

Your problem will finally boil down to searching your sequence in the Blast databases. Performing Blast seems to be probably the best way to find out if your bacteria has that specific protein expressed or not. If you could not find it in the nearest species using Blast, then try running PSI-BLAST, which would return you distant homologs, by which you can ...


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Yes, this is true. This flow of information is called the "Central dogma of Molecular Biology". It basically describes the flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins. Since a virus needs to amplify its genetic information before it can take over the infected cell and make only viral proteins and its genetic information, it has two possible options. DNA ...



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