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Its simple: Mass = Density * Volume = 10^3 (Kg/m3) * (10^-18 m3) = 10^-15 Kg which is equal to 10^-12 gram or 1pico gram


E.coli can do that and in fact does this a lot in a commonly used bacterial medium: The popular LB Medium. This is composed of three components: Tryptone, a peptide mix made by digesting milk casein with the peptidase Trypsin (10g/l) Yeast extract, made by autolysis of the cells (5g/l) Sodium chloride (10g/l) The original formulation of Bertani from ...


The root cause turned out to be a lying spec. Using a different one, it was revealed that there was next to no template DNA in the initial amplification. No DNA, no good plasmids.


In general, there is no need for a spacing between stop codon and terminator. They can be right next to each other. When transcribed, transcription terminator forms a hairpin-like structure which interacts with the RNA polymerase to stop the transcription. Usually, the upstream sequence will not interact with the terminator and it will be transcribed ...

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